Proposed Immigration Rule Change Would Harm California Children

A proposed rule change in immigration policy would harm children’s health and well being. Currently, federal officials assess how likely an immigrant is to receive certain public benefits as a part of visa applications and status adjustments, also known as the “public charge test.” The proposed change would expand the types of services that officials can use to inform decisions on immigration status. Immigrant families are eligible for these services, but fear of compromising their status may prevent them from utilizing much needed assistance. This could result in significant decreases in enrollment from Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and other public aid programs critical to children’s health.

The Children’s PartnershipPopulation Reference Bureau and Kidsdata collaborated to assess the impact of this proposed immigration rule change on California’s children. Findings are summarized in the new issue brief, The Trump Administration’s Proposed Public Charge Rule Would Harm Children’s Health and Punish Families.

Estimates include:

  • 269,000 to 628,000 children would lose coverage from Medicaid, CHIP, or other means-tested public health insurance
  • the uninsured rate among all children statewide would rise from 3% to between 5% and 8%
  • 113,000 to 311,000 children would lose access to SNAP

The analysis was modeled after the Kaiser Family Foundation issue brief, Potential Effects of Public Charge Changes on Health Coverage for Citizen Children, but expands the analysis to non-citizen children and narrows the focus to California counties. Based on this analysis, we can expect worsened chronic health conditions, increased food insecurity, and heightened anxiety among the undeniable results of not addressing medical and social needs when they arise.

Public comment in the federal registry is open until December 10. Provide comment at regulations.gov.

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Fostering Resilience at School

Image of Resilience at School Graph

Resilience is a process of adapting positively to lasting adversity and is strengthened through safe, stable, and nurturing environments. For youth, it can reduce the effects of adverse experiences. Youth can build resilience by learning how to develop and strengthen socio-emotional skills when faced with a challenge. A key place to foster resilience is in schools where so much of a child’s academic and social learning takes place.

How well are California schools fostering resilience among youth? In 2013-2015, about 25% of school staff in elementary and middle schools reported that resilience is fostered a lot at school, compared with 21% of high school staff and 35% of staff in non-traditional schools. These percentages increase substantially when including the staff who reported that resilience is fostered “some” at school (e.g., 78% of elementary school staff report that resilience is fostered some or a lot at school), however fostering resilience at school some does a disservice to youth who may need support the most. Youth will benefit throughout their lives from a school environment where the skills to build resilience are fostered a lot.

This data release is a part of Kidsdata’s Youth in Schools series. In partnership with WestEd, we are featuring data from the California Department of Education’s California Healthy Kids Survey.

Data in Action

Data Briefing: New Data on Youth in Schools
Thursday, November 8 at 10 am PST

Join us for a 30-minute webinar on our newest suite of data. Learn how the largest statewide surveys of school climate, risk behaviors, and protective factors in the nation informs us of how children are faring in California. We will also provide an overview of how to access the data. Audience questions are highly encouraged. Register.

Start A Conversation in Your Community on Adverse Childhood Experiences
Ariane Marie-Mitchell, a professor from Loma Linda University in Claremont, CA, helped start a conversation on the lack of trauma-informed schools in her community. Using data on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) from kidsdata.org, she highlighted the importance of building resilient schools to schools staff, parents, and school board members.

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Data Briefing: New Data on Youth in Schools

Webinar

Date: Thursday, November 8
Time: 10:00-10:30 AM PST

Kidsdata, in partnership with WestEd, recently released a comprehensive suite of data on youth in schools in more than a dozen topics, from bullying and cyberbullying to school climate, school safety and student support. These data come from the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) and California School Staff Survey (CSSS). Learn about the largest statewide surveys of school climate, risk behaviors, and protective factors in the nation and how to access the data. Audience questions are highly encouraged. Speakers will be available for questions immediately after the 30-minute briefing.

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Speakers

Lori Turk-Bicakci, PhD
Senior Manager, Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health

Image of Lori Turk-BicakciLori Turk-Bicakci is a senior manager at the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. She oversees kidsdata.org, a publicly-available data resource on children’s health in California. Dr. Turk-Bicakci ensures that the data and information are high-quality, relevant, and user-friendly, and she works with researchers and advocates across California to address key children’s health issues. Before becoming a researcher, Dr. Turk-Bicakci taught social studies in middle school. She holds a PhD in sociology from University of California, Riverside and a teaching credential from University of California, Davis.

Thomas L. Hanson, PhD
Program Director, Health & Justice Program, WestEd

Image of Tomas L. HansonThomas L. Hanson, PhD, serves as Director of WestEd’s Health and Justice Program, which works to strengthen the capacity of institutions throughout the community to provide the supports, knowledge, and skills all people need to succeed – especially those in the most challenging circumstances. He directs the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey System (CalSCHLS) project. CalSCHLS – which consists of a suite of psychometrically sound student, staff, and parent surveys – was developed by the California Department of Education to assess all major domains of school climate and safety; learning engagement; youth strengths and needs; and developmental risk and protective factors at the local level.

About

Kidsdata.org, a program of the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, is a public resource with wide-ranging data on children’s health in California.

WestEd is a nonpartisan, nonprofit research, development, and service agency. WestEd aims to improve education and other important outcomes for children, youth and adults.

Youth in Schools Data

Youth in Schools Data Available on Kidsdata

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The Generational Effects of Childhood Adversity

Childhood Hardships Among Women Who Recently Gave Birth, 2013-2014

 

Almost half of women in California who recently gave birth in 2013-2014 had experienced adversity as children. Childhood hardships, including family hunger, parental substance abuse, and basic needs not being met, can influence long term emotional health and impact the next generation. Mothers who had experienced childhood adversity are more likely to have feelings of depression during and immediately after pregnancy, and unaddressed maternal depression can have life-long consequences for their children.

According to a data brief (PDF) from the California Department of Public Health, over 25% of women who experienced four or more childhood hardships developed postpartum symptoms compared with 10% of women who did not experience hardships as children. Women who are identified early and receive appropriate treatment, particularly during pregnancy, can mitigate the impact of postpartum depression and engage positively with their child. Children of women who have been identified should have well-child care that carefully monitors their psychological and social development.

Learn more about childhood adversity and resilience »

Data in Action

Webinar: Using Kidsdata for Action
Family Voices of California is hosting a Kidsdata webinar to focus attention on children with special health care needs. Learn about the types of data that are available and how to access and use them to promote action and optimize children’s health and well being. Wednesday, October 24, 12:00PM – 1:00PM PDT. Register here.

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Quick Tip: Data Overview Guide

Our Data Overview Guide provides a complete list of all the topics available on kidsdata.org. You can quickly view popular data breakdowns for each topic from demographics like income, race/ethnicity and age to regions, including national, state, county, city, school district and legislative district. Also, see the earliest timeframe available for the topic to assess change over time.

Access the Guide »

Get more information like this overview by visiting kidsdata.org/about.

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School Climate and Children’s Health

Students with Low Levels of School Connectedness, by Race/Ethnicity, 2013-2015

Image of Graph for School Connectedness

A positive school climate is an important factor that defines effective schools. When school climate is positive, students are more likely to succeed academically and engage in healthy behaviors. A key measure of school climate is level of school connectedness, which takes into account if students feel happy, safe, close to people, and a part of school, and that teachers treat them fairly.

Improving school climate is a promising strategy to narrow achievement gaps among groups of students. However, student groups experience school climate differently. For example, in California, higher percentages of African American/Black and American Indian/Alaskan Native students report low levels of school connectedness in 2013-2015 (15% and 14%, respectively) compared with Asian and White students (both 8%). In addition to race/ethnicity, gaps also exist by parent education level and sexual orientation. By creating an inclusive, safe, and academically challenging school climate and utilizing targeted interventions for some groups, we can expect improved academic and health outcomes for all students.

California law now requires school districts to address school climate as part of the Local Control and Accountability Plans. Learn more about policy and practice recommendations to nurture a strong school climate.

This data release is a part of Kidsdata’s Youth in Schools series. In partnership with WestEd, we are featuring data from the California Department of Education’s California Healthy Kids Survey.

Data in Action

See Kidsdata at the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) conference in Sacramento on September 25th where we will discuss identifying inequity to target interventions.

Recently Released Data

We are continuously updating our data. Click the links below to see the latest:

Weight

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Youth in Schools Data Available on Kidsdata

Kidsdata announces a comprehensive suite of data, Youth in Schools, including new and updated indicators across more than a dozen topics from the viewpoint of California’s students and school staff. These data are available for state, county, and school district levels, and student-reported data are easily customizable by grade level, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, parent education level and level of school connectedness.

Youth in Schools data come from the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) and California School Staff Survey (CSSS), the largest statewide surveys of school climate, risk behaviors, and protective factors in the nation. This data release is made possible by a partnership with WestEd who developed and administered these surveys for the California Department of Education.

The educational environment is one of the core foundations that shape children and is crucial to ensuring optimal health and well being. Positive school climate, supportive student services, and safe campuses are critical factors for promoting strong emotional, healthful and academic futures for our children.

Explore behaviors, identify disparities, and take action with hundreds of findings about Youth in Schools at your fingertips. A few findings for 2013-2015 include:

We began releasing some of these data earlier in the year, and you’ll be hearing more from us as we highlight important findings from Youth in Schools.

List of Youth in Schools Data

For indicators that are new to Kidsdata – look for the [NEW] notation.

Access to Services for Children with Special Needs

Bullying and Harassment at School

Children’s Emotional Health

Gang Involvement

Health Care

Nutrition

Physical Fitness

Pupil Support Services

School Attendance and Discipline

School Climate

School Safety

Youth Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use

Youth Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury

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Children of Immigrant Families

Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent, 2016

 

Children with Foreign Parent Graph

Federal immigration policies and rumors about impending policies have a bigger impact on children in California than on children in most other states. In California, nearly half of children have at least one foreign-born parent. In contrast, this group accounted for about one-quarter of all children in the United States. In California, odds are youth sense the rising fear and uncertainty of family stability at home or in their community, which over time can have negative impacts on emotional and physical health.

The direction of current immigration policy may have unintended consequences beyond harming child health and well being. Without immigrant parents, the United States would have about one-million fewer children (PDF, pg. 10), adding to an already documented shortage of children relative to adults. Fewer children means increasingly serious consequences for supporting the future labor force and sustaining an aging population. Each child — regardless of country of origin — is more important to our future than ever before. The health and well being of all children should be our nation’s priority.

Learn more »

Data in Action

Children’s Partnership and the California Immigrant Policy Center share research findings and identify actions to support healthy development of children in immigrant families in The Effect of Hostile Immigration Policies on Children’s Mental Health.

Recently Released Data

We are continuously updating our data. Click the links below to see the latest:

Immigrants

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Maternal Emotional Health Topic New to Kidsdata

Kidsdata and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) have partnered to share important new measures of maternal mental health before and after a live birth from the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) survey. A woman’s emotional well-being during this time is central to her health and to her infant’s development. Depression during and after pregnancy is a serious medical condition that requires culturally appropriate and trauma-informed support and treatment.

Guest authors, Christine Rinki and Amina Foda, Research Scientists with the California Department of Public Health, share important findings about symptoms of depression among women who recently gave birth in California:

Symptoms of depression during and after pregnancy

According to a recent Data Brief (PDF) from the California Department of Public Health’s Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) survey, about one in five women who give birth in California experience symptoms of depression during or after their pregnancy.

Although relatively minor changes in mood the first few days after childbirth are common, depression that arises during or after pregnancy is a mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of sadness, anxiety or despair that last for two weeks or longer and prevent women from doing their daily tasks.

If untreated, depression during or after pregnancy increases the risk of cognitive and emotional development problems in infants, and may result in fundamental changes in the brain that can have lasting effects into childhood. Depression occurring after the baby is born can negatively impact women’s breastfeeding practices and ability to bond with their infants. Importantly, depression at any point during or after pregnancy increases the risk that women could develop chronic depression or die by suicide once the baby is born, which in turn have profound impacts on children.

Thankfully, with the appropriate care, most women can experience full recovery. Best practices to address maternal mental health include screening for depression throughout prenatal and postpartum care, and increasing the availability of services that are affordable, culturally and linguistically appropriate, and that acknowledge the history of trauma common among women with depression.

Prenatal and postpartum symptoms of depression in California

In California, 14.1% of women experienced prenatal symptoms of depression and 13.5% experienced postpartum symptoms of depression. Many, but not all, women who experienced symptoms of depression would be diagnosed with clinical depression.
There was substantial geographic variation among counties with data. Prenatal symptoms of depression ranged from 8.5% in San Mateo County to 20.2% in Stanislaus County, while postpartum symptoms of depression were 9.8% in Yolo County and 18.8% in San Joaquin County.

Prenatal Symptoms of Depression

Prenatal Symptoms of Depression Graph

See data on postpartum symptoms of depression »

Prenatal symptoms of depression: Important, but often overlooked

Despite the serious risks associated with prenatal depression, including low birth weight, premature delivery and changes in infant brain development, its importance is often overlooked. MIHA results (PDF) indicate that prenatal symptoms of depression often precede postpartum symptoms of depression in women. In California, 53% of the women who experienced prenatal symptoms of depression went on to report them in the postpartum period. In contrast, only 7% of women without symptoms of depression during pregnancy experienced them after pregnancy. In order to have the best chance of improving outcomes for the mother and infant, routine screening and treatment for depression should begin early in pregnancy, a time when women have increased contact with the health care system.

Disparities in prenatal symptoms of depression

Though symptoms of depression during and after pregnancy can affect women regardless of their background or circumstances, some groups in California experience them at disproportionately high levels. Women who are Black or Latina had higher rates of symptoms of depression compared to other racial or ethnic groups. During pregnancy, symptoms of depression were twice as common for Black (19.9%) and Latina (17.1%) women compared to White (9.5%) and Asian/Pacific Islander (10.3%) women. Reports of prenatal and postpartum symptoms of depression were highest among women with incomes below poverty (20.7% and 18.2%, respectively), and declined as income increased.

Prenatal Symptoms of Depression by Race/Ethnicity

Prenatal Symptoms of Depression by Race/Ethnicity

See data on disparities in prenatal and postpartum symptoms of depression »

Programs that address perinatal emotional and mental health

The Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Division of the California Department of Public Health strives to improve maternal emotional and mental health by tailoring primary prevention to address the social factors that lead to poor emotional and mental health and to promote individual protective factors. Additionally, many MCAH Division programs screen for symptoms of depression using validated tools, and provide appropriate referrals and support for women in need of care. For example, the Black Infant Health Program conducts group sessions with complementary case management that provide social support while helping women develop skills to reduce stress, enhance emotional well-being and develop life skills in a culturally affirming environment that honors the unique history of Black women. The California Home Visiting Program funds home visiting models throughout the state that use a strengths-based approach to enhance the mother-baby relationship. Home visitors address family needs such as financial struggles, relationships, and navigating the health care system, while support groups and mental health consultation directly address emotional well-being.

Striving for equity in perinatal emotional and mental health

The underlying causes of the maternal mental health disparities identified in the MIHA Data Brief are multifaceted. For example, Black and Latina women in California experience higher levels of risk factors for depression such as poverty and childhood hardships compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Institutional racism (the practices of social and political institutions that result in unfair treatment of Black, Latina and other minority groups) likely plays a role in explaining the concentration of risk factors, and the subsequent racial and ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms. Achievement of emotional and mental well-being for all California women during and after their pregnancies can have profound societal impacts. Action to address social factors can improve outcomes for low-income and minority families.

 

Recently Released Data

We are continuously updating our data. Click the links below to see the latest:

Maternal Emotional Health

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Access to High Quality Health Care for California Children

Guest author, Holly Henry, PhD, is a Program Officer at the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. She works to improve the system of care for children with special health care needs. Dr. Henry focuses on promoting effective care coordination, a practice that links children and their families with appropriate services and resources to support optimal health.

Every child deserves high quality health care that is accessible, family-centered, culturally competent, coordinated, continuous, compassionate, and comprehensive. Unfortunately, our current system of care for children is deeply fragmented and health needs are not being met. One approach to strengthening coordination of care is providing care through a medical home. The medical home recognizes the family as a constant in a child’s life and emphasizes partnership between health care professionals and families. It facilitates collaboration between patients, clinicians, medical staff, and families. More importantly, a medical home extends beyond the four walls of a clinical practice – it includes specialty care, educational services, and family support.

Receipt of Care Within a Medical Home, 2016

In 2016, 42% of California children received care within a medical home compared with 49% of children nationally. Receipt of care within a medical home varies across the state. The counties with the highest and lowest percentages of children receiving care within a medical home, among counties with data, are also noted in the graph above.

Children receiving care from a medical home have fewer outpatient visits and families report better child health status. Families also report increased satisfaction with their child’s care. For children with special health care needs this can also mean decreased length and frequency of hospitalizations and lower out-of-pocket spending.

All children would benefit from being cared for within a medical home. See how your county is faring.

Data in Action

Learn more about care coordination and how it can help reduce health care fragmentation. The Lucile Packard Foundation is hosting a webinar on care coordination for children with medical complexity on July 26 at 10 am PST. Audience Q&A is highly encouraged. Attendees can listen via web or phone. Learn more and register.

Recently Released Data

School Provides Services for Students with Special Needs (Staff Reported) [NEW]

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