- Reading Proficiency
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Bias-Related Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Disability as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Gender as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Race/Ethnicity or National Origin as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Religion as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Sexual Orientation as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Cyberbullying, by Grade Level
- Student Bullying/Harassment Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Characteristics of Children with Special Needs
- College Eligibility
- English Learners
- High School Graduation
- Math Proficiency
- Disconnected Youth
- Pupil Support Services
- School Safety
- Perceptions of School Safety, by Grade Level
- Fear of Being Beaten Up at School, by Grade Level
- Physical Fighting at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Weapon Other Than a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Perceptions of School Safety for Students (Staff Reported)
- Perceptions of School Safety for Staff (Staff Reported)
- Student Physical Fighting Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Student Weapons Possession Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- School Attendance and Discipline
- School Climate
- School Connectedness (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- School Supports (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Caring Relationships with Adults at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Students Who Are Motivated to Learn (Staff Reported)
- School Motivates Students to Learn (Staff Reported)
- Adults at School Care About Students (Staff Reported)
- Adults at School Believe in Student Success (Staff Reported)
- School Gives Students Opportunities to Make a Difference (Staff Reported)
- School Fosters Youth Resilience or Asset Promotion (Staff Reported)
- Why This Topic Is Important
Students proficient in reading are more likely to be engaged in school, graduate from high school, and go to college (1). Students with limited reading abilities have a harder time keeping up across multiple subjects, including math and science, and those who fall behind in the early grades often stay behind (1, 2). Early intervention is critical for children who are struggling with reading (2). Limited reading skills can have effects into adulthood, too, as reading proficiency is associated with better employment and income prospects, and adults with limited reading abilities are likely to have children who struggle with reading (1).
State and national data consistently show achievement gaps in reading by race/ethnicity, income, and English Learner status. Some progress has been made in reducing the gaps, but large inequities remain (3).For more information on reading proficiency see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Child Trends Databank. (2015). Reading proficiency. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=reading-proficiency
2. U.S. Department of Education. (2013). For each and every child—A strategy for education equity and excellence. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf
3. Education Trust–West. (2015). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2015 results. Retrieved from: https://west.edtrust.org/resource/2015-national-assessment-of-education-progress-results
- How Children Are Faring
In 2016, 48% of public school students who took the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) met or exceeded their grade-level standard in English Language Arts/Literacy. At the county level, proficiency ranged from 30% (Lake) to 67% (Marin). Data also show variation by English fluency, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For example, 35% of socioeconomically disadvantaged students in California scored at or above their grade-level standard in 2016, compared with 69% of their non-disadvantaged peers. Among racial/ethnic groups, proficiency rates were 70% or higher among Asian American and Filipino students, and below 40% for African American/black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latino groups.
- Policy Implications
Significant education policy changes have taken place in California and the U.S. in recent years, such as the state’s Local Control Funding Formula, the Common Core State Standards, the Smarter Balanced Assessment System, and the Every Student Succeeds Act (1, 2). Policymakers now face challenges in effectively implementing these large-scale changes, which have the potential to reduce long-standing achievement gaps in reading proficiency by race/ethnicity, income level, disability status, and English Learner status (2).
Policy options that could improve reading proficiency include:
For more policy and program ideas related to reading proficiency, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section or visit Education Trust–West, EdSource, or the Institute of Education Sciences What Works Clearinghouse. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Math Proficiency, High School Graduation, and Family Income and Poverty.
- Ensuring that all children have access to high-quality preschool or kindergarten readiness programs, which lay the foundation for later achievement (3, 4)
- Continuing to support K-12 schools in creating positive school climates and developing comprehensive, coordinated, evidence-based systems to address students’ physical, emotional, behavioral, and other needs (4, 5)
- In accordance with California law, supporting effective strategies to increase family involvement in school, which is linked to improvements in student behavior, academic achievement, and engagement in school, as well as improvements in school climate (6)
- As California works to meet Every Student Succeeds Act requirements, ensuring that the state’s new accountability system is meaningful, effective, streamlined, and supports all students, particularly low-income students, children of color, students with disabilities, and English Learners (1, 2, 7)
- Supporting efforts to provide school districts and county offices of education with affordable technical assistance as they implement California’s Local Control Funding Formula, and ensuring implementation effectively focuses resources on high-need students (2, 3)
- Ensuring adequate investment in evidence-based literacy improvements at all levels—early education, elementary, middle, and high school; such literacy initiatives should be grounded in research, include mechanisms to identify and support struggling students, and incorporate professional development for teachers, in alignment with Common Core Standards (2, 7)
- Supporting all teachers in improving the quality and consistency of literacy instruction that is appropriate to each grade level (2, 7)
- Ensuring equitable student access to rigorous, high-quality instructional materials and the technology needed for Smarter Balanced Assessments and 21st century instruction (2)
- Continuing to improve the state’s education data system, so that it provides meaningful reports to local educators and leaders to inform decision making (3)
Sources for this narrative:
1. Education Trust–West. (2015). The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015: What it means for equity and accountability in California. Retrieved from: http://west.edtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/11/Every-Student-Succeeds-Act-Implications-for-CA-FINAL-PDF.pdf
2. Education Trust–West. (2014). The Education Trust–West 2014 Policy Agenda: Tectonic shifts in California's education landscape. Retrieved from: https://west.edtrust.org/resource/the-education-trust-west-2014-policy-agenda
3. Hill, L., et al. (2016). California's future: K-12 education. Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved from: http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=899
4. My Brother’s Keeper Task Force. (2014). My Brother’s Keeper Task Force report to the President. Retrieved from: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/053014_mbk_report.pdf
5. Basch, C. E., et al. (2015). Health barriers to learning and the education opportunity gap. Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from: http://www.ecs.org/the-progress-of-education-reform-health-barriers-to-learning-and-the-education-opportunity-gap
6. Thigpen, D., & Freedberg, L. (2014). The power of parents: Research underscores the impact of parent involvement in schools. EdSource & New America Media. Retrieved from: http://edsource.org/2014/the-power-of-parents-what-the-research-shows/61862
7. Haynes, M. (2015). The next chapter: Supporting literacy within ESEA. Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved from: http://all4ed.org/reports-factsheets/literacywithinesea
- Websites with Related Information
- Alliance for Excellent Education
- American Institutes for Research: Reading and Literacy
- Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, WestEd
- Education Commission of the States
- Education Trust–West
- Getting Down to Facts II: How is California’s PreK-12 Education System Performing? What Improvements Are Still Needed?, Stanford University & Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE)
- Institute of Education Sciences: What Works Clearinghouse
- PolicyforResults.org, Center for the Study of Social Policy
- Public Policy Institute of California: K-12 Education
- Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis
- The Early Learning Lab
- Key Reports and Research
- Achievement Gap Points to Ineffectiveness of Decades of Reforms, 2015, EdSource, Freedberg, L.
- Attendance in the Early Grades: Why It Matters for Reading, 2014, Attendance Works & Campaign for Grade-Level Reading
- Health and Academics, 2017, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Implementing the Common Core State Standards in California, 2014, Public Policy Institute of California, Warren, P., & Murphy, P.
- Improving the Opportunities and Outcomes of California's Students Learning English: Findings from School District–University Collaborative Partnerships, 2015, Policy Analysis for California Education, Umansky, I. M., et al.
- Student Achievement Analysis: Results of the 2017-18 Smarter Balanced Assessments, 2018, Education Trust–West
- The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimination on the Immigrant Child, 2015, Migration Policy Institute, Brown, C. S.
- The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015: What It Means for Equity and Accountability in California, 2015, Education Trust–West
- The Local Control Funding Formula: An Essential EdSource Guide, 2016, EdSource
- The Next Chapter: Supporting Literacy Within ESEA, 2015, Alliance for Excellent Education, Haynes, M.
- The Power of Parents: Research Underscores the Impact of Parent Involvement in Schools, 2014, EdSource & New America Media, Thigpen, D., & Freedberg, L.
- The Progress of Education Reform: Health Barriers to Learning and the Education Opportunity Gap, 2015, Education Commission of the States, Basch, C. E., et al.
- The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model, 2015, Journal of School Health, Hunt, H. (Ed.)
- Time for Equity Resource Series, 2017, Brown University, Annenberg Institute for School Reform
- County/Regional Reports
- 2014 Solano Children's Report Card, Children's Network of Solano County
- 2017 Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- 2018-19 California County Scorecard of Children's Well-Being, Children Now
- Collaborating for Equity: A Scan of the Los Angeles Educational Ecosystem, 2015, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Potochnik, T., & Romans, A. N.
- Fourth Annual Oakland Achieves Public Education Progress Report, 2016, Oakland Achieves Partnership, Brown, R., et al.
- Live Well San Diego Report Card on Children, Families, and Community, 2017, The Children's Initiative & Live Well San Diego
- Orange County Community Indicators Report, Orange County Community Indicators Project
- San Mateo County All Together Better, San Mateo County Health
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2018 Data Book, Planned Parenthood & Kids in Common
- Santa Monica Youth Wellbeing Report Card, Santa Monica Cradle to Career
- The 24th Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County, 2018, Orange County Children's Partnership
- Youth Need Data, Get Healthy San Mateo County
- More Data Sources For Reading Proficiency
- 2018 KIDS COUNT Data Book, Annie E. Casey Foundation
- California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) Results, California Dept. of Education
- California School Dashboard, California Dept. of Education
- Child Trends Databank: Reading Proficiency
- DataQuest, California Dept. of Education
- ED Data Express: Data About Elementary and Secondary Schools in the U.S., U.S. Dept. of Education
- Education Data Partnership (Ed-Data), California Dept. of Education, et al.
- Local Control Funding Formula Reports, California Dept. of Education
- National Center for Education Statistics: Data Tools, U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences
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