- Juvenile Arrests
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Bias-Related Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Disability as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Gender as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Race/Ethnicity or National Origin as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Religion as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Sexual Orientation as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Cyberbullying, by Grade Level
- Student Bullying/Harassment Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Children's Emotional Health
- Hospitalizations for Mental Health Issues, by Age Group
- Depression-Related Feelings, by Grade Level
- Youth Who Reported Needing Help for Emotional or Mental Health Problems
- Receipt of Mental Health Services Among Children Who Need Treatment or Counseling (Regions of 70,000 Residents or More)
- Students Who Are Well-Behaved (Staff Reported)
- Student Depression or Mental Health Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- School Emphasizes Helping Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems (Staff Reported)
- Intimate Partner Violence
- Disconnected Youth
- Pupil Support Services
- Gang Involvement
- School Safety
- Perceptions of School Safety, by Grade Level
- Fear of Being Beaten Up at School, by Grade Level
- Physical Fighting at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Weapon Other Than a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Perceptions of School Safety for Students (Staff Reported)
- Perceptions of School Safety for Staff (Staff Reported)
- Student Physical Fighting Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Student Weapons Possession Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- School Attendance and Discipline
- School Climate
- School Connectedness (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- School Supports (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Caring Relationships with Adults at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Students Who Are Motivated to Learn (Staff Reported)
- School Motivates Students to Learn (Staff Reported)
- Adults at School Care About Students (Staff Reported)
- Adults at School Believe in Student Success (Staff Reported)
- School Gives Students Opportunities to Make a Difference (Staff Reported)
- School Fosters Youth Resilience or Asset Promotion (Staff Reported)
- Youth Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use
- Alcohol/Drug Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol/Drug Use on School Property in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use in Lifetime, by Grade Level
- Binge Drinking in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Drinking and Driving or Riding with a Driver Who Has Been Drinking, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Lifetime, by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Lifetime, by Grade Level
- Student Alcohol and Drug Use Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Substance Abuse Prevention Is an Important Goal at School (Staff Reported)
- Substance Use Prevention Education Is Provided at School (Staff Reported)
- Why This Topic Is Important
Youth who have contact with the juvenile justice system are at increased risk for a number of negative long-term outcomes—such as injury, substance use and dependency, dropping out of school, and early pregnancy—when compared with the general youth population (1, 2). Youth who have been detained also may face difficulty gaining the educational credentials they need to obtain sustained employment, and may be more likely to engage in criminal behavior as adults (3). Conditions that increase the likelihood of involvement with the juvenile justice system include family poverty, separation from family members including parental incarceration, a history of maltreatment, and exposure to violence in the home and community (2).
Additional risk factors for juvenile criminal activity are substance use or dependency, significant educational challenges, and mental illness (2, 4). Of the youth who enter California’s juvenile justice system, an estimated 30% have mental health issues (5). Youth who have been held in detention have higher rates of attempted suicide and psychiatric disorders than youth who have not been detained (3, 4, 6).For more information on juvenile arrests, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. PolicyforResults.org. (n.d.). Prevent juvenile delinquency. Retrieved from: http://www.policyforresults.org/youth/prevent-juvenile-delinquency
2. Nellis, A. (2012). The lives of juvenile lifers: Findings from a national survey. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from: http://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/the-lives-of-juvenile-lifers-findings-from-a-national-survey
3. PolicyforResults.org. (n.d.). Reduce juvenile detention. Retrieved from: http://www.policyforresults.org/youth/reduce-juvenile-detention
4. Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2014). Behavioral health problems, treatment, and outcomes in serious youthful offenders. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/publications/PubAbstract.asp?pubi=264515
5. Legislative Analyst's Office. (2012). The 2012-2013 budget: Completing juvenile justice realignment. Retrieved from: http://www.lao.ca.gov/Publications/Detail/2562
6. Abram, K. M., et al. (2014). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among detained youth. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/publications/PubAbstract.asp?pubi=265968
- How Children Are Faring
California’s juvenile felony arrest rate declined by 73% between 1998 and 2015, from 19.6 arrests per 1,000 youth ages 10-17 to 5.3. Although all counties with data saw declines during this period, county-level rates vary widely; these ranged from 2.9 to 11.7 per 1,000 in 2015.
In 2015, 34% of juvenile felony arrests in California were for violent offenses, 31% for property offenses, 24% for other offenses (e.g., weapons, hit-and-run), 7% for drug and alcohol offenses, and 3% for sex offenses. Statewide, boys account for the vast majority of juvenile felony arrests—84% in 2015.
Among racial/ethnic groups with data, African American/black youth are arrested for felony offenses at higher rates than their peers in other groups—24 arrests per 1,000 youth in 2015, compared to 5 arrests per 1,000 Hispanic/Latino youth and 3 arrests per 1,000 white youth. In 2015, more than three-quarters of all juvenile felony arrests in California involved youth of color.
- Policy Implications
The juvenile justice system is responsible for protecting communities from crime and delinquency, holding youth offenders accountable, and rehabilitating them. Policymakers within the justice, education, and social services systems can play a role in improving the way society addresses juvenile crime. The process for adjudicating youth offenders often does not have the intended effect on crime control, and it does not consistently take into account the relative public safety risk or circumstances of individual youth (1).
Policy options that could reduce juvenile felonies include:
For more policy ideas on juvenile justice, visit the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under these topics: Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions, High School Graduation, School Connectedness, and Gang Involvement.
- Improving systems of care to address the mental health needs of juvenile offenders, from initial screening or assessment at first contact with the juvenile justice system to provision of appropriate treatment to incarcerated youth (1)
- Addressing recidivism by reforming policies that increase the likelihood to re-offend, and providing services that decrease it, such as mentoring, behavioral programs, group counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy, and assistance in graduating high school (2, 3)
- Examining and improving existing policies for processing youth offenders through the juvenile justice system; policies should allow for case-specific assessment of an individual's circumstances, the severity of the offense, the public safety risk posed by the youth, and the potential effects of system processing (4)
Sources for this narrative:
1. Petrosino, A., et al. (2013). Formal system processing of juveniles: Effects on delinquency (Crime Prevention Research Review No. 9). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Retrieved from: http://ric-zai-inc.com/ric.php?page=detail&id=COPS-P265
2. Redding, R. E. (2010). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/publications/PubAbstract.asp?pubi=242419
3. Seigle, E., et al. (2014). Core principles for reducing recidivism and improving other outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Council of State Governments Justice Center. Retrieved from: https://csgjusticecenter.org/youth/publications/juvenile-justice-white-paper
4. Legislative Analyst's Office. (2012). The 2012-2013 budget: Completing juvenile justice realignment. Retrieved from: http://www.lao.ca.gov/Publications/Detail/2562
- Websites with Related Information
- Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice
- Coalition for Juvenile Justice
- CrimeSolutions.gov: Juveniles, National Institute of Justice
- Criminal Justice Statistics Center (CJSC) Publications, California Dept. of Justice
- Emotional, Behavioral, and Mental Health Challenges in Children and Adolescents: Professional Resource Guide, 2014, Maternal and Child Health Digital Library
- Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, Council for a Strong America
- Juvenile Justice Information Exchange
- National Center for Youth Law: Juvenile Justice
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept. of Justice
- Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY), Prevention Institute
- Youth Crime and Justice Publications, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
- Youth First Initiative
- Youth.gov, Interagency Working Group on Youth Programs
- Key Reports and Research
- 2018 California Children's Report Card, Children Now
- An Impact Evaluation of Three Strategies Created to Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact and the Detention Population, 2013, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Rodriguez, N., & Eell, E.
- Behavioral Health Problems, Treatment, and Outcomes in Serious Youthful Offenders, 2014, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P.
- Breaking Schools’ Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement, 2011, Council of State Governments Justice Center & Public Policy Research Institute, Fabelo, T., et al.
- Children’s Exposure to Violence and the Intersection Between Delinquency and Victimization, 2013, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Cuevas, C. A., et al.
- Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, 2014, Council of State Governments Justice Center, Seigle, E., et al.
- Juvenile Justice in California, 2014, Public Policy Institute of California, Tafoya, S., & Hayes, J.
- Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2014 National Report, 2014, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Sickmund, M., & Puzzanchera, C. (Eds.)
- Predicting Recidivism Among Juvenile Delinquents: Comparison of Risk Factors for Male and Female Offenders, 2013, Journal of Juvenile Justice, Thompson, K. C., & Morris, R. J.
- Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action, 2014, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, David-Ferdon, C., & Simon, T. R.
- Reducing Justice System Inequality, 2018, The Future of Children
- School Discipline Consensus Report: Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged in School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System, 2014, Council of State Governments Justice Center, Morgan, E., et al.
- Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Detained Youth, 2014, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Abram, K. M., et al.
- The Lives of Juvenile Lifers: Findings from a National Survey, 2012, The Sentencing Project, Nellis, A.
- The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders, 2014, Journal of Juvenile Justice, Baglivio, M. T., et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- 2014 Solano Children's Report Card, Children's Network of Solano County
- 2017 Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- Live Well San Diego Report Card on Children, Families, and Community, 2017, The Children's Initiative & Live Well San Diego
- Orange County Community Indicators Report, Orange County Community Indicators Project
- Santa Monica Youth Wellbeing Report Card, Santa Monica Cradle to Career
- The 24th Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County, 2018, Orange County Children's Partnership
- Youth Need Data, Get Healthy San Mateo County
- More Data Sources For Juvenile Arrests
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- KIDS COUNT Data Center, Annie E. Casey Foundation
- National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Victimization Analysis Tool, Bureau of Justice Statistics
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