Download & Other Tools
- Definition: Estimated percentage of children ages 0-17 living with one or more parents who were born outside of the United States.
- Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey. Accessed at http://factfinder2.census.gov (Oct. 2013).
- Footnote: The foreign-born parent population includes parents who are naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, temporary migrants, humanitarian migrants, and unauthorized migrants. Data are displayed for geographies with at least 65,000 people based on 2012 population estimates. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to estimates that have been suppressed because the margin of error was greater than 10 percentage points. These estimates are based on a survey of the population and are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. N/A means that data are not available.
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population
- Public School Enrollment
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Total Population
- Family Structure
- Households with and without Children, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Family Structure for Children in Households, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in the Care of Grandparents, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- English Learners
- Why This Topic Is Important
Children in immigrant families, including children who are foreign born or who live with at least one foreign-born parent, represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. child population (1). In 2012, this group accounted for 25% of all children in the United States (2). This population is particularly large in California, where the proportion of foreign-born residents is the highest in the country (2, 3).
Children in immigrant families are more likely than other children to have household incomes below the Federal Poverty Level, to have parents with low educational attainment, to live in language-isolated households, and to be in fair or poor physical health (1). It is therefore important for schools, health care systems, government and nonprofit organizations to address the needs of these children, and work to eliminate barriers to service. Also, foreign-born women tend to have a higher fertility rate than women born in the U.S., making increases in this population especially germane to providers of perinatal service and services to young children (4).
It should be noted that today’s immigrant children vary more by national origin and socioeconomic status than in previous years (5). The educational and health status of this population varies widely depending on many factors, such as the country of origin and length of time in the U.S. (6, 7).
For more information on this topic please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources cited for this narrative:
1. Child Trends. (2013). Immigrant children. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=immigrant-children
2. As cited on kidsdata.org, Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More). (2014). American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: http://factfinder2.census.gov/
3. Migration Policy Institute. (2012). California: Social and demographic characteristics. MPI data hub: Migration facts, stats, and maps. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/acscensus.cfm#
4. Grieco, E., et al. (2012). The foreign-born population in the United States: 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Reports (ACS-19). Retrieved from: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/acs-19.pdf
5. Tienda, M., & Haskins, R. (2011). Immigrant children: Introducing the issue. The Future of Children Journal, 21(1), 3-18. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/journal_details/index.xml?journalid=74
6. Baum, S., & Flores, S. M. (2011). Higher education and children in immigrant families. The Future of Children Journal, 21(1), 171-193. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/journal_details/index.xml?journalid=74
7. Burd-Sharps, S., & Lewis, K. (2011). A portrait of California: California Human Development Report 2011. The Measure of America Series, American Human Development Project of the Social Science Research Council. Retrieved from: http://www.measureofamerica.org/california/
- Measures of Immigrants on Kidsdata.org
On kidsdata.org, measures related to immigrant populations include the following 1-, 3-, and 5-year estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey:
- Percentage of children living in "linguistically isolated" households (i.e., children in households without someone over 13 who speaks English "Very Well")
- Percentage of children ages 0-17 living with one or more foreign-born parents
- Percentage of the population that is foreign-born, by age group
- How Children Are Faring
According to 2012 estimates, 50% of California children ages 0-17 live with one or more foreign-born parents. This percentage has been relatively steady since 2007, though figures vary widely among California counties. For example, an estimated 63% of children in Santa Clara County had foreign-born parents, compared to 10% in Shasta County in 2010-2012.
In 2012, an estimated 12% of California children lived in "linguistically isolated" households, households without someone over 13 who speaks English "Very Well." This figure has decreased slightly in recent years, from 15% in 2007. Linguistic isolation varies greatly at the county level, from 2% to 26% in 2012.
An estimated 7% of California children ages 5-17 were born outside the U.S. in 2012. The figure is lower for young children ages 0-4 (2%). Among adults, the foreign-born estimate was 17% for ages 18-24 and 38% for ages 25-64. Between 2007 and 2012, the statewide percentage of immigrant children and youth ages 0-24 declined slightly, figures for adults ages 25 to 64 remained fairly steady, and figures for Californians ages 65 and over increased slightly.
- Policy Implications
Children of immigrants are more likely to be low-income than children of native-born parents (1). Immigrant children, particularly those in low-income households, often confront hardships in accessing health care, safety-net public benefits, and quality education (2, 3, 4). In 2013, California passed immigration reform to target these disparities in immigrant families, supporting better outcomes for children (5). California offers some benefits to undocumented immigrant children that would not be available under federal law, including Medi-Cal, post-secondary financial aid, and domestic worker protections for their parents (5, 6). However, enforcement of other immigration regulations can have a negative effect on children. For example, the deportation of a parent or legal caregiver can cause family instability and economic hardship, and can exacerbate mental health problems (7, 8). New considerations of parental rights will ensure the unnecessary disruption of those rights and encourage parental stability for children (9). Additionally, the federal Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program has been viewed as important temporary relief from deportation, expanding the socioeconomic mobility and trajectories for these DACA-eligible youth (10).
According to research and subject experts, policies that could influence the well being of immigrant children include:
- Ensuring that federal immigration reform is comprehensive and includes more efficient pathways to citizenship and other legal statutes to promote family unity, such as providing basic support and child welfare services to immigrant children (2, 3, 7)
- Targeting children in low-income, immigrant families for quality pre-kindergarten education and Medi-Cal/health care eligibility (3, 4, 11)
- Ensuring linguistically and culturally appropriate health care for immigrant families (11)
- Addressing the needs of English language learners in public schools including improving language instruction for school-age children (3, 4)
- Addressing the DACA implementation strategies to close the gender and nationality disparities in application admissions and denials (10).
For more policy ideas and research on this topic see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section or visit the Urban Institute or the National Immigration Law Center. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under English Learners and College Eligibility.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Chaudry, A., & Fortuny, K. (2010). Children of immigrants: Economic well-being. Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412270-children-of-immigrants-economic.pdf
2. Hinojosa-Ojeda, R. (2010). Raising the floor for American workers: The economic benefits of comprehensive immigration reform. Center for American Progress and Immigration Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/01/raising_the_floor.html
3. Hernandez, D. J., & Cervantes, W. (2011). Children in immigrant families: Ensuring opportunity for every child in America. Foundation for Child Development & First Focus. Retrieved from: http://www.fcd-us.org/resources/children-immigrant-families-ensuring-opportunity-every-child-america
4. Haskins, R., & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children, Princeton-Brookings. Retrieved from: http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/21_01_PolicyBrief.pdf
5. Morse, A., et al. (2013). 2013 immigration report. National Conference of State Legislatures: Immigrant Policy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/Portals/1/Documents/immig/2013ImmigrationReport_Jan21.pdf
6. California Student Aid Commission. (n.d.). California Dream Act. Retrieved from: http://www.csac.ca.gov/dream_act.asp
7. Cervantes, W., Lincroft, Y. (2010). The impact of immigration enforcement on child welfare. First Focus. Retrieved from: http://www.firstfocus.net/sites/default/files/r.2010-4.7.cervantes.pdf
8. Enchautegui, M. E. (2013). Broken immigration policy: Broken families. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412806-Broken-Immigration-Policy-Broken-Families.pdf
9. U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2013). Facilitating parental interests in the course of civil immigration enforcement activities. Retrieved from: http://www.ice.gov/doclib/detention-reform/pdf/parental_interest_directive_signed.pdf
10. Wong, T. K., et al. (2013). Undocumented no more: A nationwide analysis of deferred action for childhood arrivals, or DACA. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/DACAReportCC-2-1.pdf
11. Ku, L., & Jewers, M. (2013). Health care reform for immigrant families: Current policies and issues. National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/health-care-immigrant-families-current-policies-and-issues
- Websites with Related Information
- American Immigration Council
- Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
- Children of Immigrants Data Tool, Urban Institute
- Migration Policy Institute Data Hub
- National Center for Children In Poverty: Immigrant Families
- National Council of La Raza
- Pew Hispanic Center: Immigration
- Public Policy Institute of California: Immigration
- RAND Corporation: Migration
- Spanish-Language Health Resources Knowledge Path, Maternal and Child Health Library at Georgetown University
- Urban Institute: Immigrants
- Key Reports
- A Portrait of California, American Human Development Project of the Social Science Research Council
- America’s Future: Latino Child Well-Being in Numbers and Trends, National Council of La Raza & Population Reference Bureau
- California Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Legislative District, Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF), et al.
- Children in Immigrant Families: Ensuring Opportunity for Every Child in America, Foundation for Child Development & First Focus
- Demographic and Socioeconomic Profiles of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum, et al.
- Ethnic Health Assessment for Latinos in California, California Program on Access to Care at UC Berkeley School of Public Health & California Endowment
- Identifying Vulnerable Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders in California Under Health Care Reform, Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum, et al.
- Immigrant Children, The Future of Children
- Inclusive Policies Advance Dramatically in the States: Immigrants’ Access to Driver’s Licenses, Higher Education, Workers’ Rights, and Community Policing, National Immigration Law Center, et al.
- Ten Policies to Improve Access to Quality Child Care for Children in Immigrant Families, CLASP
- The Reuniting Immigrant Families Act: A Case Study on California’s Senate Bill 1064, State Policy Advocacy and Reform Center
- Unauthorized Migrants and Their U.S. Born Children, Pew Hispanic Center
- Your Health, Your Future: Making DACA Work for You in the Golden State, California Immigrant Policy Center, et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- Changing the Odds for Our Children: Santa Clara County Children's Agenda, Kids in Common
- Generational Future of Los Angeles: Projections to 2030 and Comparisons to Recent Decades, University of Southern California, Sol Price School of Public Policy
- Immigrants in California by Region: Kern, Los Angeles, San Joaquin, Santa Barbara, and Tulare Counties, California Immigrant Policy Center
- L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service Planning Area, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, et al.
- Language Access Needs in Alameda County: New and Emerging Immigrant and Refugee Communities, The California Endowment