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- Definition: Estimated percentage of children ages 0-17 living with one or more parents who were born outside of the U.S.
- Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey (Sept. 2015).
- Footnote: The foreign-born parent population includes parents who are naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, temporary migrants, humanitarian migrants, and unauthorized migrants. Data are displayed for geographies with at least 65,000 people based on 2014 population estimates. These estimates are based on a survey of the population and are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to estimates that have been suppressed because the margin of error was greater than 5 percentage points. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of Immigrants on Kidsdata.org
On kidsdata.org, measures related to immigrant populations include the following: percentage of children living in "linguistically isolated" households (i.e., children in households without someone age 14 or older who speaks English "very well"), percentage of children ages 0-17 living with one or more foreign-born parent, and percentage of the population that is foreign-born, by age group. These data are estimates based on the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Data are available for:
- Cities, school districts, and counties with 65,000+ residents, as single-year estimates;
- Cities, school districts, and counties with 20,000+ residents, as 3-year estimates;
- Cities, school districts, and counties with 10,000+ residents, as 5-year estimates; and/or
- Legislative districts, as 5-year estimates.
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Foreign-Born Population, by Age Group (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Family Structure
- Households with and without Children, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Family Structure for Children in Households, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in the Care of Grandparents, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- English Learners
- Why This Topic Is Important
Children in immigrant families, including children who are foreign born or who live with at least one foreign-born parent, represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. child population (1). In 2014, this group accounted for 25% of all children in the United States (2). This population is particularly large in California, where the proportion of foreign-born residents is the highest in the country (2, 3).
Children in immigrant families are more likely than other children to have household incomes below the Federal Poverty Level, to have parents with low educational attainment, to live in language-isolated households, and to be in fair or poor physical health (1). It is therefore important for schools, health care systems, government and nonprofit organizations to address the needs of these children, and work to eliminate barriers to service. Also, foreign-born women tend to have a higher fertility rate than women born in the U.S., making increases in this population especially germane to providers of perinatal service and services to young children (4).
It should be noted that today's immigrant children vary more by national origin and socioeconomic status than in previous years (5). The educational and health status of this population varies widely depending on many factors, such as the country of origin and length of time in the U.S. (6, 7).For more information on this topic please see kidsdata.org's Research & Links section.
Sources cited for this narrative:
1. Child Trends Databank. (2014). Immigrant children. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=immigrant-children
2. As cited on kidsdata.org, Children living with one or more foreign-born parent (regions of 65,000 residents or more). (2015). U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey. Retrieved from: http://factfinder.census.gov
3. Migration Policy Institute. (n.d.). State immigration data profiles: California. MPI Data Hub. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/data/state-profiles/state/demographics/CA
4. Grieco, E. M., et al. (2012). The foreign-born population in the United States: 2010 (Report No. ACS-19). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gov/library/publications/2012/acs/acs-19.html
5. Tienda, M., & Haskins, R. (2011). Immigrant children: Introducing the issue. The Future of Children, 21(1), 3-18. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=74&articleid=538
6. Baum, S., & Flores, S. M. (2011). Higher education and children in immigrant families. The Future of Children, 21(1), 171-193. Retrieved from:http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=74&articleid=545
7. Lewis, K., & Burd-Sharps, S. (2014). A portrait of California 2014-2015: California Human Development Report. Measure of America. Retrieved from: http://www.measureofamerica.org/california2014-15
- How Children Are Faring
According to 2014 estimates, 49% of California children ages 0-17 live with one or more foreign-born parents. This percentage has been relatively steady since 2007, though figures vary widely among California counties. For example, an estimated 63% of children in Santa Clara County had foreign-born parents, compared to 7% in Amador County in 2009-2013.
In 2014, an estimated 10% of California children lived in "linguistically isolated" households (i.e., households in which no person age 14 or older speaks English "very well"). This figure has decreased slightly in recent years, from 15% in 2007. The percentage of children living in linguistically isolated households varies greatly at the county level, from 1% to 23% in 2009-2013.
An estimated 6% of California children ages 5-17 were born outside the U.S. in 2014. The figure is lower for young children ages 0-4 (2%). An estimated 15% of adults ages 18-24 and 38% ages 25-64 were born outside of the U.S. Between 2007 and 2014, the statewide percentage of immigrant children and youth ages 0-24 declined slightly, figures for adults ages 25 to 64 remained fairly steady, and figures for Californians ages 65 and older increased slightly.
- Policy Implications
Children of immigrants are more likely to be low-income than children of native-born parents (1). Immigrant children, particularly those in low-income households, often confront hardships in accessing health care, safety-net public benefits, and quality education (2, 3, 4). In 2013, California passed immigration reform to target these disparities in immigrant families, supporting better outcomes for children (5). California offers some benefits to undocumented immigrant children that would not be available under federal law, including Medi-Cal, post-secondary financial aid, and domestic worker protections for their parents (5, 6). However, enforcement of other immigration regulations can have a negative effect on children. For example, the deportation of a parent or legal caregiver can cause family instability and economic hardship, and can exacerbate mental health problems (7, 8). New considerations of parental rights will ensure the unnecessary disruption of those rights and encourage parental stability for children (9). Additionally, the federal Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program has been viewed as important temporary relief from deportation, expanding the socioeconomic mobility and trajectories for these DACA-eligible youth (10).
According to research and subject experts, policies that could influence the well being of immigrant children include:
For more policy ideas and research on this topic see kidsdata.org's Research & Links section or visit the Urban Institute or the National Immigration Law Center. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under English Learners and College Eligibility.
- Ensuring that federal immigration reform is comprehensive and includes more efficient pathways to citizenship and other legal statutes that promote family unity. These may include providing basic support and child welfare services to immigrant children (2, 3, 7)
- Targeting children in low-income, immigrant families for quality pre-kindergarten education and Medi-Cal/health care eligibility (3, 4, 11)
- Ensuring linguistically and culturally appropriate health care for immigrant families (11)
- Addressing the needs of English language learners in public schools including improving language instruction for school-age children (3, 4)
- Addressing the DACA implementation strategies to close the gender and nationality disparities in application admissions and denials (10).
Sources for this narrative:
1. Chaudry, A., & Fortuny, K. (2010). Children of immigrants: Economic well-being (Brief No. 4). Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/research/publication/children-immigrants-economic-well-being
2. Hinojosa-Ojeda, R. (2010). Raising the floor for American workers: The economic benefits of comprehensive immigration reform. Center for American Progress and American Immigration Council. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2010/01/07/7187/raising-the-floor-for-american-workers
3. Hernandez, D. J., & Cervantes, W. D. (2011). Children in immigrant families: Ensuring opportunity for every child in America. First Focus and Foundation for Child Development. Retrieved from: http://www.fcd-us.org/resources/children-immigrant-families-ensuring-opportunity-every-child-america
4. Haskins, R., & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children (Policy Brief). The Future of Children. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/21_01_PolicyBrief.pdf
5. Morse, A., et al. (2013). 2013 immigration report. National Conference of State Legislatures, Immigrant Policy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/research/immigration/2013-immigration-report.aspx
6. California Student Aid Commission. (n.d.). California Dream Act. Retrieved from: http://www.csac.ca.gov/dream_act.asp
7. Cervantes, W., & Lincroft, Y. (2010). The impact of immigration enforcement on child welfare. First Focus and Migration and Child Welfare National Network. Retrieved from: http://firstfocus.org/resources/report/the-impact-of-immigration-enforcement-on-child-welfare
8. Enchautegui, M. E. (2013). Broken immigration policy: Broken families. Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/research/publication/broken-immigration-policy-broken-families
9. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (2013). Facilitating parental interests in the course of civil immigration enforcement activities. Retrieved from: http://www.ice.gov/parental-interest
10. Wong, T. K., et al. (2013). Undocumented no more: A nationwide analysis of deferred action for childhood arrivals, or DACA. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2013/09/20/74599/undocumented-no-more
11. Ku, L., & Jewers, M. (2013). Health care for immigrant families: Current policies and issues. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/health-care-immigrant-families-current-policies-and-issues
- Websites with Related Information
- Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
- Immigration Impact, American Immigration Council
- National Center for Children In Poverty: Immigrant Families Publications
- National Council of La Raza
- Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project: Immigration
- Public Policy Institute of California: Immigration
- RAND Corporation: Migration
- Spanish-Language Health Resources Knowledge Path, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health
- Urban Institute: Immigrants and Immigration
- Key Reports
- Asian Pacific Islander (API) Population Report: In Our Own Words, 2013, California Dept. of Public Health, Office Of Health Equity
- California's Diminishing Resource: Children, 2013, Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health and USC, Myers, D.
- California's Population, 2014, Public Policy Institute of California, Johnson, H.
- Children in Immigrant Families: Ensuring Opportunity for Every Child in America, 2011, First Focus and Foundation for Child Development, Hernandez, D. J., & Cervantes, W. D.
- Community-Defined Solutions for Latino Mental Health Care Disparities, 2012, UC Davis Center for Reducing Health Disparities, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., et al.
- Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States, 2015, Migration Policy Institute, Zong, J., & Batalova, J.
- Hispanic Nativity Shift: U.S. Births Drive Population Growth as Immigration Stalls, 2014, Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project, Krogstad, J. M., & Lopez, M. H.
- Identifying Vulnerable Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders in California Under Health Care Reform, 2013, Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum, Cook, W. K., et al.
- Immigrant Children, 2011, The Future of Children, 21(1)
- Immigrant Parents and Early Childhood Programs: Addressing Barriers of Literacy, Culture, and Systems Knowledge, 2014, Migration Policy Institute, Park, M., & McHugh, M.
- Immigrants in California, 2013, Public Policy Institute of California, Johnson, H., & Mejia, M. C.
- Immigration and Child Welfare, 2015, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Child Welfare Information Gateway
- Inclusive Policies Advance Dramatically in the States: Immigrants’ Access to Driver’s Licenses, Higher Education, Workers’ Rights, and Community Policing, 2013, National Immigration Law Center, Broder, T., et al.
- Providing Care for Immigrant, Migrant, and Border Children, 2013, Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Community Pediatrics
- The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimination on the Immigrant Child, 2015, Migration Policy Institute, Spears Brown, C.
- The Rise of Asian Americans, 2013, Pew Research Center's Social and Demographic Trends Project
- The Role of Public Policies and Community-Based Organizations in the Developmental Consequences of Parent Undocumented Status, 2013, Social Policy Report, Yoshikawa, H., et al.
- Unauthorized Immigrants and Their U.S.-Born Children, 2010, Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project, Passel, J. S., & Taylor, P.
- Your Health, Your Future: Making DACA Work for You in the Golden State, 2013, California Immigrant Policy Center
- County/Regional Reports
- County of San Mateo Adolescent Report 2014-15, San Mateo County Health System
- Fresno Community Scorecard, Fresno Business Council and Valley PBS
- L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service Planning Area, 2009, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, Ichinose, D. K., et al.
- Language Access Needs in Alameda County: New and Emerging Immigrant and Refugee Communities, 2008, The California Endowment
- Looking Forward: Immigrant Contributions to the Golden State, 2014, California Immigrant Policy Center
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2015 Data Book, Planned Parenthood and Kids in Common
- The Generational Future of Los Angeles: Projections to 2030 and Comparisons to Recent Decades, 2013, USC Population Dynamics Research Group, Myers, D., & Pitkin, J.
- The Wellbeing Project, City of Santa Monica
- More Data Sources For Immigrants
- California Health Interview Survey, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research
- Children of Immigrants Data Tool, Urban Institute
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- Diversitydatakids.org, Brandeis University, Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy
- Migration Policy Institute: Data Hub