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- Definition: Number of public school students eligible to receive free or reduced price meals. A child's family income must fall below 130% of the federal poverty guidelines ($29,055 for a family of four in 2011-2012) to qualify for free meals, or below 185% of the federal poverty guidelines ($41,348 for a family of four in 2011-2012) to qualify for reduced-cost meals.Percentage of public school students eligible to receive free or reduced price meals. A child's family income must fall below 130% of the federal poverty guidelines ($29,055 for a family of four in 2011-2012) to qualify for free meals, or below 185% of the federal poverty guidelines ($41,348 for a family of four in 2011-2012) to qualify for reduced-cost meals.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, Free/Reduced Price Meals Program & CalWORKS Data Files, http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/sd/filessp.asp (May 2013); U.S. Dept. of Education, NCES Common Core of Data, http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/bat/index.asp (May 2013).
- Footnote: Years presented are the final year of a school year (e.g., 2011-2012 is shown as 2012). LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because there were fewer than 40 students enrolled in school. N/A means that data are not available.
- Child Population
- Public School Enrollment
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Total Population
- Family Income and Poverty
- Children in Poverty (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Poverty (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Poverty (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Poverty - Supplemental Poverty Measure (State & U.S. Only)
- Children Living Above and Below the Poverty Level (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Income Level
- Children Living Above and Below the Poverty Level (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More), by Income Level
- Children Living Above and Below the Poverty Level (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Income Level
- Median Family Income (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Median Family Income (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Median Family Income (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Self-Sufficiency Standard, by Household Type
- Families Living Below the Self-Sufficiency Standard
- CalWORKs Recipients
- Adequacy of Income to Meet Basic Needs
- Free/Reduced Price School Meals
- Housing Affordability
- Math Proficiency
- Reading Proficiency
- Nutrition - Breakfast
- Why This Topic Is Important
Free or reduced price school meal (FRPM) programs provide a safety net to help ensure that low-income students get adequate nutrition (1). These programs help to address food insecurity among low-income students, and can improve students’ physical health (including obesity), behavior, school performance, and cognitive development, research suggests (2, 3).
Student eligibility for FRPM programs serves as a proxy measure of family poverty, as the federal poverty threshold tends to underestimate the extent of poverty, particularly in high cost areas. Research indicates that families in California can earn two or more times the federal poverty level and still struggle to meet their basic needs (4). Income eligibility for FRPM programs goes up to 185% of federal poverty (about $41,000 for a family of four in 2011-2012).
Sources for this narrative:
1. Wight, V. R., Thampi, K, & Briggs, J. (2010). Who are America’s poor children? Examining food insecurity among children in the United States. New York, New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. Retrieved from: http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_958.html.
2. Grundersen, C., Kreider, B., & Pepper, J. (2012). The impact of the National School Lunch Program on child health: A nonparametric bounds analysis. Journal of Econometrics, 166(1), 79-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2011.06.007.
3. Food Research & Action Center. (2010). Child nutrition fact sheet: National School Lunch Program. Retrieved from: http://frac.org/newsite/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/cnnslp.pdf
4. As cited on kidsdata.org, California family economic Self-Sufficiency Standard, 2011. Insight Center for Community Economic Development and Dr. Diana Pearce, Center for Women's Welfare, School of Social Work, University of Washington. Retrieved from: http://www.insightcced.org/communities/cfess/ca-sss.html
- How Children Are Faring
Nearly 60% of all public school students in California are eligible for free or reduced price school meals (meaning their household incomes are less than about $41,000 for a family of four), according to 2012 data. This equates to almost 3.5 million low-income students statewide, an increase from about 3.2 million (51%) in 2007. County and school district data show increases, as well; between 2007 and 2012, percentages rose in almost all counties and in about 80% of school districts with available data. At the county level, the percentage of students eligible for free/reduced price meals ranged from 25% to 79% in 2012.
- Policy Implications
School breakfast and lunch programs have the potential to provide low-income children with nutritious and affordable meals. However, these programs are not used by many children who are eligible to receive them for free or at a reduced price. In California public schools, for example, school breakfast programs do not reach 70% of the state’s 3.4 million low-income students (1). Several challenges hinder enrollment and participation, including paperwork issues and stigma (2). In addition, high levels of salt, fat, and sugar in school lunches have contributed to the nationwide childhood obesity epidemic (3).
According to research and subject experts, policy-related actions that could improve free and reduced price school meal participation, and the quality of the meals themselves, include:
For more policy recommendations and research on this topic, see the kidsdata.org's Research & Links section or visit California Food Policy Advocates, the Food Research & Action Center, and Action for Healthy Kids. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Family Income & Poverty, and Nutrition/Breakfast.
- Utilizing authority under state law and the federal Child Nutrition Act to make it simpler and less stigmatizing for students to access free and reduced-price school meals, while streamlining administration at the school level; this includes “direct certification,” which allows school districts to automatically qualify children in families receiving CalWORKS or food stamps for free school meals (4, 5)
- Adopting school district-wide use of effective service models such as Classroom Breakfast, Second Chance Breakfast, and Grab n’ Go (different approaches to serving breakfast during the school day, in class, or outside of traditional settings) to increase participation and decrease stigma associated with subsidized breakfast (5, 6)
- Ensuring the availability of nutritious, appealing foods at school meals without competition from less healthful foods, thereby supporting healthy dietary habits (7)
- Making healthful snacks available and affordable in schools, which can lead to students’ increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (8)
Sources for this narrative:
1. California Food Policy Advocates. (2012). School meals analysis 2010-11. Retrieved from: http://cfpa.net/school-meal-analysis10-11
2. BreakfastFirst. (2010). Research and resources. Retrieved from: http://www.breakfastfirst.org/tools/resources.shtml
3. Millimet, D., et al. (2009). School nutrition programs and the incidence of childhood obesity. Journal of Human Resources. 45(3). 640-654. Retrieved from: http://www2.gsu.edu/~ecort/MTH2010.pdf
4. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2009). Direct certification in the national school lunch program: State implementation progress. Report to congress. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/ORA/menu/Published/CNP/FILES/NSLPDirectCertification2009.pdf
5. 111th Congress. (2010). Healthy, hunger-free kids act of 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-3307
6. Shimada, T. (2009). Evaluating school breakfast and implementing second chance breakfast: Newark Unified School District. California Food Policy Advocates. Retrieved from: http://www.breakfastfirst.org/pdfs/NUSD_full%20report%20in%20color_final.pdf
7. Crawford, P., et al. (2011). The ethical basis for promoting nutritional health in public schools in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease 8(5). 98. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181198/
8. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2013). Smart snacks in school. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/tags/smart-snacks-school
- Websites with Related Information
- California Food Policy Advocates
- California Healthy Kids Resource Center, California Department of Education & California Department of Public Health
- Child Trends: Children in Poverty
- Food Research and Action Center (FRAC)
- National Center for Children in Poverty
- USDA Food and Nutrition Service: School Meals
- Key Reports
- Child Poverty in California, Public Policy Institute of California
- Ending Childhood Hunger by 2015: The Essential Strategies for Achieving the President’s Goal, Food Research and Action Center
- Food Insecurity and Risk for Obesity Among Children and Families: Is There a Relationship?, Healthy Eating Research, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
- Kids Share 2012: Report on Federal Expenditures on Children Through 2011, Urban Institute
- Map the Meal Gap: Child Food Insecurity, Feeding America
- Prosperity Threatened: Perspectives on Childhood Poverty in California, The Next Generation
- Reading, Writing and Hungry: The Consequences of Food Insecurity on Children, and on our Nation’s Economic Success, Food Research and Action Center, Children’s Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program, Partnership for America's Economic Success
- The California Poverty Measure: A New Look at the Social Safety Net, Public Policy Institute of California
- The National School Lunch Program Background and Development, USDA Food and Nutrition Services
- The Real Cost of a Healthy Diet, Children's HealthWatch at Boston Medical Center & Center for Hunger-Free Communities at Drexel University's School of Public Health
- The School Breakfast Program Strengthens Household Food Security Among Low-Income Households with Elementary School Children, Journal of Nutrition
- Who Are America’s Poor Children? Examining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity, National Center for Children in Poverty
- County/Regional Reports
- Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- Poverty in Southern California: The Impact on Young Children, The First 5 Association, First 5s of Southern California, Healthy City & Kidsdata.org
- San Diego County Report Card on Children & Families
- Santa Clara County Children’s Agenda: Indicators of Child Health and Well-Being (Data Book), Kids in Common
- Solano County Children's Report Card, Children's Network
- Tulare County Children’s Report Card 2010, Children's Services Network