Ratio of Students to Pupil Support Service Personnel, by Type of Personnel

Download & Other Tools
Location: (hide)

Loading...

Year(s): (edit)

Loading...

Data Type: (edit)

Loading...

Loading... (edit)

Loading...

Select All Counties
Alameda County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Alpine County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Amador County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Butte County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Calaveras County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Colusa County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Contra Costa County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Del Norte County
School Districts
Select All Districts
El Dorado County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Fresno County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Glenn County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Humboldt County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Imperial County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Inyo County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Kern County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Kings County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Lake County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Lassen County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Los Angeles County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Madera County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Marin County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Mariposa County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Mendocino County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Merced County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Modoc County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Mono County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Monterey County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Napa County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Nevada County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Orange County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Placer County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Plumas County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Riverside County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Sacramento County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Benito County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Bernardino County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Diego County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Francisco County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Joaquin County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Luis Obispo County
School Districts
Select All Districts
San Mateo County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Santa Barbara County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Santa Clara County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Santa Cruz County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Shasta County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Sierra County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Siskiyou County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Solano County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Sonoma County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Stanislaus County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Sutter County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Tehama County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Trinity County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Tulare County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Tuolumne County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Ventura County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Yolo County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Yuba County
School Districts
Select All Districts
Loading…
(Return to top)

Learn More About Pupil Support Service Personnel

Measures of Pupil Support Service Personnel on Kidsdata.org
Pupil support service personnel are professionals who provide direct services to students—but not as classroom teachers. They include counselors, psychologists, librarians, social workers, nurses, speech/language/hearing specialists, resource specialists, and other personnel.*

The measures on kidsdata.org include the total number of and ratio of students to full-time equivalent (FTE) pupil support service personnel, by type of personnel. Total pupil support service personnel were derived by summing up the number of full-time equivalent employees in a given area.
* Examples of "other pupil service personnel" include psychometrists, other medical professionals, and special education therapists.
Pupil Support Service Personnel
Bullying and Harassment at School
Characteristics of Children with Special Needs
College Eligibility
Demographics
Early Care and Education
English Learners
High School Graduation
Math Proficiency
Health Care
Reading Proficiency
School Connectedness
School Safety
Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions
Why This Topic Is Important
Pupil support service personnel address students’ social, emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive needs to help them reach their maximum academic and health potential (1, 2, 3). The availability of an array of pupil support personnel indicates a school’s capacity to meet a wide range of student needs. For example, school counselors often help students learn coping, conflict-resolution, and goal-setting skills that are critical to future success, and counselors also provide immediate support during crises (1). Educational psychologists provide some of these same services and also offer mental health counseling, identify learning challenges, and assist teachers in tailoring instruction accordingly (4). Speech-language-hearing and resource specialists provide direct service and case management for students with specific disabilities (5, 6). Nurses manage the daily health needs of students, which may include providing basic health care and screenings, connecting students to health care resources, and helping students manage chronic health conditions, among other responsibilities (3). Greater access to nurses and counselors is associated with more positive school climates which generally lead to better student performance (2, 3, 7).

Overall, these personnel work to ensure that children are healthy and have the support they need to be successful learners (1, 3). These staff also play an important role in creating a positive learning environment at school, which is linked to improved student behavior and academic achievement (1, 4, 7).
For more information on pupil support service personnel, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.

Sources for this narrative:

1.  California Department of Education. (2016). School counseling programs – CalEdFacts. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/cg/mc/cefschoolcounsel.asp

2.  American School Counselor Association. (n.d.). Empirical research studies supporting the value of school counseling. Retrieved from: https://www.schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/Careers-Roles/Effectiveness.pdf

3.  National Association of School Nurses. (2015). The complementary roles of the school nurse and school based health centers. Retrieved from: http://www.nasn.org/PolicyAdvocacy/PositionPapersandReports/NASNPositionStatementsArticleView/tabid/462/ArticleId/46/School-Based-Health-Centers-The-Role-of-the-School-Nurse-and-Revised-2011

4.  California Association of School Psychologists. (n.d.). Working to improve California schools – one student at a time. Retrieved from: http://www.casponline.org/pdfs/pdfs/what-school-psychs-do.pdf

5.  American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). The role of the SLP in schools. Retrieved from: http://www.asha.org/uploadedFiles/slp/schools/prof-consult/slprole.pdf

6.  California Association of Resource Specialists. (n.d.) Q & A. Retrieved from: http://carsplus.org/q-a

7.  Voight, A., et al. (2013). A climate for academic success: How school climate distinguishes schools that are beating the achievement odds. WestEd. Retrieved from: https://www.wested.org/resources/a-climate-for-academic-success-how-school-climate-distinguishes-schools-that-are-beating-the-achievement-odds-full-report
How Children Are Faring
The statewide ratio of students to full-time equivalent (FTE) pupil support service personnel has improved in recent years, from 263 public school students per support personnel in 2011 to 235 students per personnel in 2015. However, student access to support personnel varies widely by school district across the state.

In 2015, public school districts in California employed 7,876 FTE counselors, the most common type of pupil support personnel in the state. The ratio of students to counselors, 792:1 in 2015, does not meet the American Counseling Association's recommended ratio of 250 students per counselor.

The ratio of students to school nurses, 2,784:1 in 2015, does not meet the 750:1 ratio recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Policy Implications
Pupil services personnel, such as school counselors and nurses, often provide critical support for student success, particularly for students with physical, emotional, or behavioral problems. Yet with limited school resources and numerous demands, policymakers face difficult decisions about levels of non-teaching staff. These personnel meet student needs that otherwise may fall to administrators and teachers to address, or they may not be addressed at all. School counselors, school nurses, and school-based health services in general, are linked to many positive outcomes, including a healthy learning environment and improved student behavior, engagement in school, and academic achievement (1, 2, 3). Fortunately, recent federal and state policy changes have created opportunities to expand these support services for students (1, 4, 5).

Policy options that could improve student access to quality support services include:
  • Maximizing partnerships and existing funding streams, such as California’s Local Control Funding Formula and the Mental Health Services Act, to ensure that students have access to school counseling and other mental health services, and promoting the use of research-based techniques to target specific student outcomes (1, 2, 4)
  • Promoting the delivery of health care services at school by funding school nurses and school-based health centers (the Affordable Care Act allocated $30 million for California to build or remodel school-based health centers) (1, 3, 5)
  • Integrating student mental health and health care services into a coordinated and comprehensive system of supports; a key aspect of such a system includes engaging school staff (teachers, administrators, etc.), students, parents, and the community (6, 7)
For more information about pupil services personnel, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section, the California Department of Education, the California Association of School Counselors, the California School-Based Health Alliance, and the California School Nurses Association. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Bullying and Harassment at School; Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions; and School Connectedness.

Sources for this narrative:

1.  California School-Based Health Alliance. (n.d.). The Local Control Funding Formula: Maximizing the new school funding formula to expand health supports. Retrieved from: http://cshca.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LCFF-Toolkit-FINAL.pdf

2.  American School Counselor Association. (n.d.). Empirical research studies supporting the value of school counseling. Retrieved from: https://www.schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/Careers-Roles/Effectiveness.pdf

3.  National Association of School Nurses. (2015). The complementary roles of the school nurse and school based health centers. Retrieved from: http://www.nasn.org/PolicyAdvocacy/PositionPapersandReports/NASNPositionStatementsArticleView/tabid/462/ArticleId/46/School-Based-Health-Centers-The-Role-of-the-School-Nurse-and-Revised-2011

4.  California School-Based Health Alliance, & Fight Crime: Invest in Kids California. (2014). Connecting students to mental health services: Creative collaborations, funding, and evidence-based practices. Retrieved from: http://cshca.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Connecting-Students-to-Mental-Health-Services_FINAL.pdf

5.  California School-Based Health Alliance. (n.d.). Financing. Retrieved from: https://www.schoolhealthcenters.org/school-health-centers-in-ca/financing

6.  Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2015). Transforming student and learning supports: Developing a unified, comprehensive, and equitable system. Center for Mental Health in Schools. Retrieved from: http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/newinitiative.html

7.  California Department of Education. (2014). What is coordinated school health. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/cs/csh.asp
Websites with Related Information
Key Reports
County/Regional Reports
More Data Sources For Pupil Support Service Personnel