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- Definition: Estimated percentage of households that spend at least 30% of household income on rent or mortgage payments, taxes, insurance, utilities, and other related housing costs (e.g., in 2013-2017, 43.1% of California households experienced a high housing cost burden).
- Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey (Dec. 2018).
- Footnote: These estimates are based on a survey of the population and are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
- Measures of Housing Affordability on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org provides three measures related to housing affordability:
Estimates of households with a high housing cost burden and children living in crowded households are available for:
- Fair Market Rent, by Unit Size: This is the estimated monthly cost of rent and tenant-paid utilities in standard-quality rental housing.
- Households with a High Housing Cost Burden: This is the estimated percentage of households that spend at least 30% of household income on housing costs.
- Children Living in Crowded Households: This is the estimated percentage of children living in households with more than one person per room of the home.
- Cities, school districts, and/or counties with 65,000+ residents, as single-year estimates
- Cities, school districts, and counties with 10,000+ residents, as 5-year estimates
- Legislative districts, as 5-year estimates
- Housing Affordability
- Fair Market Rent, by Unit Size
- Households with a High Housing Cost Burden (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Crowded Households (65,000 Residents or More)
- Family Income and Poverty
- Children in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Areas of Concentrated Poverty
- Children in Deep Poverty (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Median Family Income, by Family Type (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Household Income Distribution, by Quintile (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Gini Index of Household Income Inequality (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Income Level for Children Relative to Poverty (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Income Level for Children Relative to Poverty, by Family Type (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Low-Income Working Families (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Mothers with a Recent Birth Living in Families in Poverty
- Mothers with a Recent Birth Living in Low-Income Families
- Children in Poverty - Supplemental Poverty Measure (California & U.S. Only)
- Poverty Thresholds - California Poverty Measure, by Family Composition and Housing Tenure
- Children in Poverty - California Poverty Measure
- Children in Deep Poverty - California Poverty Measure
- Poverty-Reducing Effects of the Social Safety Net - California Poverty Measure, by Program Type and Poverty Level (California Only)
- Self-Sufficiency Standard, by Family Composition
- Families Living Below Self-Sufficiency Standard
- Children Participating in CalWORKs
- Food Security
- Childhood Adversity and Resilience
- Children with Adverse Experiences (Parent Reported), by Number: 0-2
- Prevalence of Childhood Hardships (Maternal Retrospective)
- by Family Income (CA Only)
- by Maternal Age (CA Only)
- by Prenatal Insurance Coverage (CA Only)
- by Race/Ethnicity (CA Only)
- Basic Needs Not Met
- Basic Needs Not Met, by Family Income (CA Only)
- Basic Needs Not Met, by Maternal Age (CA Only)
- Basic Needs Not Met, by Prenatal Insurance Coverage (CA Only)
- Basic Needs Not Met, by Race/Ethnicity (CA Only)
- Moved Due to Financial Problems
- Moved Due to Financial Problems, by Maternal Age (CA Only)
- Moved Due to Financial Problems, by Family Income (CA Only)
- Moved Due to Financial Problems, by Prenatal Insurance Coverage (CA Only)
- Moved Due to Financial Problems, by Race/Ethnicity (CA Only)
- Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (Adult Retrospective)
- Why This Topic Is Important
California housing is among the most costly in the nation, so finding affordable housing is a significant challenge for many middle- and low-income families (1). Housing typically is considered affordable if it comprises less than 30% of a family's income (2). According to 2017 estimates, only 39% of low-income children in the U.S. and 27% of low-income children in California lived in affordable housing (3). Families that spend more than half of their income on housing tend to spend much less than other families on essential items, such as food and health care (1, 2).
Stable, affordable, quality housing is linked to positive health outcomes for children (4). In some cases, a lack of affordable housing can result in families living in crowded households. Residential overcrowding may be linked to the prevalence of certain infectious diseases, poor educational attainment, and psychological distress, among other potential adverse effects (1, 4). Even when families are not in crowded homes, unaffordable or unstable housing can diminish a child's opportunities for educational success due to increased chances of moving, changing schools, and disruptions in classroom instruction (5).For more information on housing affordability, please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Legislative Analyst's Office. (2015). California's high housing costs: Causes and consequences. Retrieved from: https://lao.ca.gov/reports/2015/finance/housing-costs/housing-costs.aspx
2. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. (2014). Housing's and neighborhoods' role in shaping children's future. Evidence Matters: Transforming Knowledge into Housing and Community Development Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/em/fall14/highlight1.html
3. KIDS COUNT Data Center. (2019). Children in low-income households with a high housing cost burden. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from: https://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/71?loc=6&loct=2#detailed/2/6/true/871/any/377
4. Maqbool, N., et al. (2015). The impacts of affordable housing on health: A research summary. Center for Housing Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.nhc.org/publication/the-impacts-of-affordable-housing-on-health-a-research-summary
5. Brennan, M., et al. (2014). The impacts of affordable housing on education: A research summary. Center for Housing Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.nhc.org/publication/the-impacts-of-affordable-housing-on-education
- How Children Are Faring
In 2017, an estimated 42% of California households were housing cost-burdened, meaning they spent at least 30% of income on housing. This figure is down from 48% in 2007 but remains higher than national estimates which ranged from 32% to 38% over this period.
According to 2016 estimates from the same survey, 28% of California children lived in crowded households (i.e., in homes with more than one person per room), twice the estimate for children nationwide. Similar to other housing and economic measures, estimates vary at the local level; for example, among California counties with data in 2012-2016, the percentage of children who experienced household overcrowding ranged from 8% (Plumas) to 40% (Monterey).
Across metropolitan areas statewide, fair market rent for a standard-quality, two-bedroom housing unit ranged from $700 per month in Modoc County to $3,170 per month in Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties in fiscal year 2019.
- Policy Implications
Access to affordable housing is a serious challenge for many families in California, with the state's housing costs among the highest in the nation (1, 2). Policies to improve affordable housing can help mitigate child poverty, promote health, and increase family stability (3).
Policy options that could improve housing affordability and promote the well being of children include:
For more information about affordable housing, visit kidsdata.org's Research & Links section, or the National Housing Conference and Corporation for Supportive Housing. Also see Policy Implications under the Family Income and Poverty and Homelessness topics on kidsdata.org.
- Preserving and increasing the availability of affordable housing, especially near good schools and public transit; for example, expanding housing trust funds, housing bonds, and California's low-income housing tax credit programs, as well as supporting inclusionary zoning requirements and other incentives to build affordable housing (3, 4, 5)
- Reevaluating and improving state and local building regulations that contribute to prohibitive housing costs, such as outdated zoning, height restrictions, and parking limitations (4)
- Expanding and refining supportive local, state, and federal policies that make housing more affordable to low- and moderate-income families, such as increasing rental assistance and reducing administrative barriers to federal assistance (3, 6)
- Promoting family and residential stability by increasing investments in programs—like the state's Multifamily Housing Program—that help provide permanent housing for those most at risk of becoming homeless, while encouraging increased cross-sector collaboration among public housing agencies, multifamily housing owners, and social and homeless service providers to support families experiencing or at risk of homelessness (5, 6)
Sources for this narrative:
1. California Department of Housing and Community Development. (2014). The state of housing in California: Affordability worsens, supply problems remain. Retrieved from: http://www.hcd.ca.gov/policy-research/plans-reports/docs/web_hcd_stateofhousing_april2014.pdf
2. Legislative Analyst's Office. (2015). California's high housing costs: Causes and consequences. Retrieved from: https://lao.ca.gov/reports/2015/finance/housing-costs/housing-costs.aspx
3. Lubell, J. (2013). Reviewing state housing policy with a child-centered lens: Opportunities for engagement and intervention. Center for Housing Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.aecf.org/resources/reviewing-state-housing-policy-with-a-child-centered-lens
4. Johnson, H., & Cuellar Mejia, M. (2019). California's future: Housing. Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved from: https://www.ppic.org/publication/californias-future-housing
5. California Housing Partnership Corporation. (2015). Update on California's affordable housing crisis: The critical role of housing access and affordability in reducing poverty. Retrieved from: http://chpc.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/1-2015StatewideHousingNeedReportFINAL.pdf
6. U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness. (2019). Affordable housing. Retrieved from: https://www.usich.gov/solutions/housing/affordable-housing
- Websites with Related Information
- California Budget and Policy Center: Housing Affordability and Homelessness
- California Dept. of Housing and Community Development
- California Housing Consortium
- California Housing Partnership
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: Housing
- Corporation for Supportive Housing
- Housing California
- Housing Matters. Urban Institute.
- LINC Housing Corporation
- National Housing Conference
- National Low Income Housing Coalition
- U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
- U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness
- Urban Institute: Housing and Housing Finance
- Key Reports and Research
- America’s Housing Is Getting More Crowded. How Will That Affect Children? (2019). Urban Institute. Solari, C. D.
- California Affordable Housing Needs Report. (2020). California Housing Partnership. Mazzella, D., & Rosenfeld, L.
- California’s Digital Divide. (2019). Public Policy Institute of California. Goss, J., et al.
- California’s Homelessness Crisis – and Possible Solutions – Explained. (2020). CalMatters. Levin, M., & Botts, J.
- California’s Housing Affordability Crisis Hits Renters and Households with the Lowest Incomes the Hardest. (2019). California Budget & Policy Center. Kimberlin, S.
- California’s Housing Future: Challenges and Opportunities. (2018). California Dept. of Housing and Community Development.
- California's Future: Housing. (2020). Public Policy Institute of California. Johnson, H., et al.
- Cost, Crowding, or Commuting? Housing Stress on the Middle Class. (2019). Brookings Institution. Schuetz, J.
- Family Residential Instability: What Can States and Localities Do? (2018). Urban Institute. Theodos, B., et al.
- Five Steps to Get the Internet to all Americans. (2020). Brookings Institution. Wheeler, T.
- Housing and Child Well Being: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice. (2017). American Journal of Community Psychology. Fowler, P. J., & Farrell, A. F.
- Housing as a Platform: Strengthening the Foundation for Well-Being. (2017). Urban Institute. Brennan, M., & Galvez, M.
- Housing, Neighborhoods, and Children’s Health. (2015). The Future of Children. Ellen, I. G., & Glied, S.
- LGBT People and Housing Affordability, Discrimination, and Homelessness. (2020). Williams Institute. Romero, A. P., et al.
- Reducing Child Poverty in California: A Look at Housing Costs, Wages, and the Safety Net. (2017). Public Policy Institute of California. Bohn, S., & Danielson, C.
- The Importance of Housing Affordability and Stability for Preventing and Ending Homelessness. (2019). U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness
- Unstable Housing and Caregiver and Child Health in Renter Families. (2018). Pediatrics. Sandel, M., et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- A Roadmap Toward Equity: Housing Solutions for Oakland, California. (2015). PolicyLink & City of Oakland. Rose, K. & Lin, M.
- Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County. Orange County Children's Partnership.
- Community Health Improvement Plan for Los Angeles County 2015-2020. Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health.
- Important Facts About Kern’s Children. Kern County Network for Children.
- Inequality and Economic Security in Silicon Valley. (2016). California Budget and Policy Center. Reidenbach, L., et al.
- Live Well San Diego Report Card on Children, Families, and Community. (2019). San Diego Children’s Initiative.
- Orange County Community Indicators Report. Orange County Community Indicators Project.
- Rising Housing Costs and Re-Segregation in the San Francisco Bay Area. (2019). Urban Displacement Project & California Housing Partnership.
- Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Health in Los Angeles County. (2015). Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health.
- The Color of Wealth in Los Angeles. (2016). Duke University, et al. De La Cruz-Viesca, M., et al.
- More Data Sources For Housing Affordability
- 2020 KIDS COUNT Data Book. Annie E. Casey Foundation.
- California Family Needs Calculator. Insight Center for Community Economic Development.
- California Health and Human Services Open Data Portal. California Health and Human Services Agency.
- California Housing Partnership: Data Tools
- Childstats.gov. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.
- Out of Reach. National Low Income Housing Coalition.
- The Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey. Urban Institute.
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