Children Ages 3-5 Not Enrolled in Preschool or Kindergarten, by Age (California & U.S. Only)

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Learn More About Early Care and Education

Measures of Early Care and Education on
Child care refers to the supervision and care of a minor child, usually when the child is apart from a parent or guardian. The California Child Care Resource & Referral Network tracks licensed facilities in the state that provide care for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and/or school-age children during all or part of the day.

There are two types of facilities: child care centers and family child care homes. Child care centers offer care for children in a group setting. Family child care homes offer care in the home of the provider, often a parent.

Full-day child care facilities are open all day and all year to cover the hours needed by working parents. Part-day facilities, often called nursery schools or preschools for children 3-5 years old, generally offer a program for 3-5 hours a day only during the school year. Infant child care facilities are licensed to care for infants and toddlers under age 2. School-age facilities are licensed to serve children ages 6 and older. Most child care facilities are licensed by the California Department of Social Services (CDSS).

Data are available only for licensed facilities. Many families use license-exempt care, such as child care provided by relatives and friends. Availability of child care for potential demand is the estimated percentage of children under age 13 with parents in the labor force for whom licensed child care is available.
Early Care and Education
Family Income and Poverty
Access to Services for Children with Special Needs
Family Structure
Food Security
Housing Affordability
Impact of Special Health Care Needs on Children & Families
Reading Proficiency
Why This Topic Is Important
Child care is a critically important need for many families in the United States (1). High-quality child care centers and homes deliver consistent, developmentally sound, and emotionally supportive care and education (1, 2). Research indicates that high-quality early care and education can have long-lasting positive effects. Specifically, high-quality child care before age 5 is related to higher levels of behavioral/emotional functioning, school readiness, academic achievement, educational attainment, and earnings (1, 2, 3), and the gains are particularly pronounced for children from low-income families and those at risk for academic failure (1, 3).

However, finding affordable, high-quality child care is a major challenge for many families, and access differs based on geography, race, and income (3). In 2014, licensed child care was available for an estimated 25% of potential demand in California (i.e., children ages 0-12 with working parents) (4). And the cost is high. For example, center-based infant care costs in California made up an estimated 14% of the median annual income for married couples and 45% for single parents in 2014 (1). In 2014, California was ranked the 8th least affordable state for center-based infant care in the nation (1).
For more information about early care and education, see’s Research & Links section.

Sources for this narrative:

1.  Child Care Aware of America. (2015). Parents and the high cost of child care: 2015 report. Retrieved from:

2.  MacGillvary, J., & Lucia, L. (2011). Economic impacts of early care and education in California. UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education. Retrieved from:

3.  U.S. Department of Education. (2015). A matter of equity: Preschool in America. Retrieved from:

4.  As cited on, Availability of child care for potential demand. (2015). California Child Care Resource & Referral Network. Retrieved from:
How Children Are Faring
An estimated 40% of California children ages 3-5 were not enrolled in preschool or kindergarten in 2014. Percentages varied by racial/ethnic group and age. For example, in 2014, 45% of 3-5-year-old Hispanic/Latino children were not enrolled in preschool or kindergarten, compared to 34% of 3-5-year-old white and Asian American children.

In 2014, licensed child care was available for an estimated 25% of children ages 0-12 with working parents in California, but in some counties, availability was as low as 13%. And the total number of slots available has declined in recent years. Additionally, many child care providers do not fill all of their slots due to shortages of qualified staff or other issues, and providers’ schedules do not always meet the needs of families. For example, in 2014, only 2% of licensed child care centers offered child care during non-traditional hours. While family child care homes are more likely to provide care during non-traditional hours, they represent only about a third of the licensed child care slots in the state, and their numbers are on the decline as well.

In 2014, the average annual cost of licensed infant care was more than $13,000 in child care centers and nearly $8,500 in family child care homes. Care for preschool-age children was less expensive, but still over $9,000 in child care centers and almost $8,000 in family child care homes.
Policy Implications
Early childhood is a critical period for cognitive, biological, and social development (1, 2). The quality of children’s environments and experiences during these years can have lasting effects (1, 2). From infancy, children are learning to relate to others and their environment while developing the skills to successfully navigate social, emotional, and educational challenges (2, 3). Research has shown that quality early education and child care can have positive, long-term impacts on child development, especially for children with low family incomes or other disadvantages (1, 2, 3). For example, children who attend high-quality preschools tend to have better test scores, fewer behavioral problems, and higher rates of high school graduation, among other long-term benefits (1, 2). Without access to high-quality early learning opportunities, children can fall behind their peers, creating an academic achievement gap that has been shown to widen with age (1, 2). However, many families have difficulty accessing quality early care and education, often due to a lack of program affordability or availability (1).

According to research and subject experts, policies that could improve early education and child care include:
  • Increasing state funding for early care and education, tying funding to program quality and prioritizing care for infants/toddlers and children with the greatest needs (1)
  • Requiring early education programs that receive public funding to participate in a continuous improvement process that includes benchmarked quality ratings, action plans for improvement, accountability measures, financial incentives, program support, and parent education efforts (1, 4)
  • Creating adequate capacity for high-quality care and comprehensive learning programs for infants and toddlers, including full-day preschool for all low-income children ages 3-4, and integrating guidelines for easing the transitions from early care, to preschool, to the K-12 environment (1, 2, 5)
  • Improving the state’s professional development infrastructure to prepare and support an effective early childhood education workforce that includes accessible, coordinated, standardized, high-quality training for educators and caregivers that is research-based and focused on applying knowledge to practice (1, 2, 3)
  • Making the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit fully refundable at the state level, targeting low and moderate income earners, regardless of tax liability, and encouraging other federal solutions to address the high cost of child care (6)
For more policy ideas and research about early care and education, visit the State Advisory Council on Early Learning and Care, and the California Child Care Resource & Referral Network. Also see Policy Implications under Family Income and Poverty on

Sources for this narrative:

1.  Governor’s State Advisory Council on Early Learning and Care. (2013). California comprehensive early learning plan. California Department of Education. Retrieved from:

2.  Tout, K., et al. (2013). The research base for a birth through age eight state policy framework. Alliance for Early Success & Child Trends. Retrieved from:

3.  Allen, L., & Kelly, B. B. (Eds.). (2015). Transforming the workforce for children birth through age 8: A unifying foundation. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of The National Academies. Retrieved from:

4.  National Center on Child Care Quality Improvement. (2012). QRIS in statute and regulations. Retrieved from:

5.  Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2013). The first eight years: Giving kids a foundation for lifetime success . Retrieved from:

6.  National Women’s Law Center. (2015). 2015 supplement to "Making care less taxing: Improving state child and dependent care tax provisions." Retrieved from:
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