Special Education Enrollment, by Race/Ethnicity

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Learn More About Demographics of Children with Special Needs

Measures of Demographics of Children with Special Needs on Kidsdata.org
On kidsdata.org, indicators related to children with special health care needs include national- and state-level data on demographics, the impact of conditions on children and their families, health insurance coverage, and access to and quality of health care and other services (1). See http://www.kidsdata.org/cshcn/ for a full list of indicators.

Kidsdata.org also provides the number and percent of children under 18 with major disabilities, as 1-year, 3-year and 5-year estimates. These data are provided overall and by health insurance coverage status. The 5-year estimates also are available by legislative district (2).

In addition, the number of public school students enrolled in special education by county and school district is available, as is the number and percent by disability and by race/ethnicity at the county level (3).

Finally, kidsdata.org offers the number of active enrollees in the California Children's Services (CCS) program (i.e., enrollees with paid claims), by age group and county (4).
  1. These data come from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs and the National Survey of Children's Health. On these surveys, children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are defined as those who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional condition and who also require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally.
  2. These data come from the American Community Survey, in which children are classified as having disabilities if they have serious difficulties in one or more of the following areas: hearing, vision, cognitive ability (asked only of ages 5-17), ambulatory ability (asked of ages 5-17), self-care (asked of ages 5-17), or independent living (asked of ages 15-17).
  3. Special education gives students with specific disabilities access to a public education. Special education programs provide early intervention services for disabled children from birth to age 3, early childhood education from ages 3-5, and instruction in the least restrictive environment up to age 22. According to the California Department of Education, children and youth ages 5-18 account for about 90% of the population enrolled in special education; children ages 0-4 and youth ages 19-22 account for about 10%.
  4. These data come from a report compiled by the Stanford University Center for Policy, Outcomes and Prevention. The CCS program helps to ensure access to essential health care services for California children ages 0-21 with serious diseases. It is a joint state/county program that provides medical case management and health care service authorization to eligible children. For more information and eligibility criteria, visit the CCS site. CCS eligibility extends to children with chronic diseases as well as to those with acute injuries; therefore, many, but not all, CCS enrollees can be considered 'children with special health care needs.'
Demographics of Children with Special Needs
Bullying and Harassment at School
Access to Services for Children with Special Health Care Needs (State-Level Data)
Insurance Coverage for Children with Special Health Care Needs (State-Level Data)
Impact of Special Health Care Needs on Children & Families (State-Level Data)
Quality of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs (State-Level Data)
Low Birthweight and Preterm Births
Why This Topic Is Important
More than 1 million California children and youth have a need for health care services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally. Their ongoing health problems -- physical, behavioral,  or developmental -- can affect their ability to function and participate in activities important to their education and social participation. In some cases their health problem can shorten their lives (1). Medical care of children with special health care needs is often complicated by the co-occurrence of social, emotional, and academic problems (1, 2). Because of the higher caregiving burdens of families of children with special needs, families tend to experience more difficulties in the areas of employment, child care, and parental stress than families of other children (1, 2). 

By definition, children with special health care needs require more health care services than other children, and they account for more than 40% of all health care costs among children nationwide despite making up only 16% of the U.S. child population (1). Though advances in medical care have extended and improved the lives of millions of children, obtaining timely, appropriate and affordable care remains a problem for many families. More than four in five children with special health care needs do not receive one or more basic aspects of quality health care, in California and nationally (1). The demographic data provided here can be useful for projecting needs and developing policies to ensure that all children with special health care needs reach their maximum health potential.
Nationally and in California, the majority of children with specific disabilities that potentially interfere with their education receive special education services; the most common condition among children in special education is learning disabilities (3). There are many forms of learning disabilities, which can affect speaking, reading, writing, thinking, and/or computing (4). Many of these conditions go unrecognized. Students with learning disabilities tend to have lower high school graduation and college enrollment rates, and, as adults, have higher rates of unemployment (4).

For more information on this topic, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section and our Program for Children with Special Health Care Needs site.

Sources for this narrative:

1.  Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health and Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2013). Children with special health care needs in California: A profile of key issues. Retrieved from: http://lpfch-cshcn.org/publications/research-reports/children-with-special-health-care-needs-in-california-a-profile-of-key-issues

2.  Quach, J., et al. (2015). Trajectories and outcomes among children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 135(4), e842-e850. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/135/4/e842

3.  As cited on kidsdata.org, Special education enrollment, by disability. (2015). Special Tabulation by the State of California, Department of Education, Special Education Division; Assessment, Evaluation and Support

4.  Cortiella, C. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends, and emerging issues. National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from: https://www.ncld.org/reports-and-studies/2014-state-of-ld/


How Children Are Faring
An estimated 15% — approximately 1.4 million — of California children under age 18 have a special health care need, as defined by the National Survey of Children's Health. Commonly reported conditions among California children with special health care needs include allergies, asthma, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and developmental delay. More than half of such children in California have two or more chronic conditions, and many of these children have very complex needs. A smaller percentage of California children have major disabilities, 3.2% according to 2011-13 data of the American Community Survey, meaning they have serious impairments in vision, hearing, walking, cognition, or self-care. Estimates of children with major disabilities vary widely at the community level. It is estimated that 2.2% of uninsured children in California had one or more major disabilities in 2011-13. 

Students with learning disabilities and speech or language impairments together comprise the majority of students in special education in California, just less than two-thirds of all special education students in 2014. The percentage of students enrolled in special education for autism grew at a particularly fast rate in recent years, increasing from 2.2% to 12% between 2002 and 2014. In fact, the percentage of students with autism in special education increased in all counties with available data in that same period.
In 2012, almost 130,000 children and youth with chronic diseases and/or acute injuries were active enrollees in the California Children's Services (CCS) program (i.e., they were enrolled for at least 6 months with an eligible CCS diagnosis).
Policy Implications
Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), like all young people, need ready access to appropriate medical care, educational opportunities, and, sometimes, social services. CYSHCN, especially those with more complex conditions, may face challenges in obtaining timely access to pediatric subspecialty care, and being assured that all their care is comprehensive, coordinated, and of high quality. They also may experience difficulty attending school and participating in recreational activities. Their families may have to manage economic, social and personal burdens in excess of those of a typical family (1, 2, 3, 4).

According to research and subject experts (5), policies and programs to promote the health and well-being of children and youth with special health care needs and their families should address:
  • Comprehensive and consistent health care coverage: CYSHCN need comprehensive health insurance that provides adequate medical and mental health coverage, including access to specialty care providers. These children also need consistent coverage, without gaps that can cause delays or problems receiving critical specialty services (1). Appropriate reimbursement also is critical to maintaining an adequate provider network (6).
  • High-quality, well-coordinated, and consistent services: CYSHCN benefit from evidence-based health care services  provided in the context of a “medical home” that assures high quality, well-coordinated care (4, 7, 8).
  • Family-centered care: Families are the most central and enduring influence in children’s lives, and most of children’s care depends on their families’ carrying out agreed-upon management plans. Families’ values, beliefs, goals and priorities should help guide health care and families should be included as partners in all health care decision-making for CYSHCN (1).
  • Early and continuous screening: Systematic screenings for special health care needs beginning early in a child’s life have the potential to reduce long-term consequences of some chronic conditions. Such screenings help identify problems early and can provide an opportunity to assess the needs and strengths of families, as part of providing tailored and family-centered care (1).
  • Inclusion: Providing CYSHCN with opportunities for inclusion with other children in academic, social, and recreational settings is critical to their development and can maximize achievement and quality of life (4).
  • Support for adulthood transition: As CYSHCN age, they need support from their health care, educational, and social service systems to successfully transition to adulthood. For example, they may need assistance to move from school to work or post-secondary education, from pediatric care to adult health care, and/or from family dependency to self-sufficiency (1, 4).
  • Financing of care: Families of CYSHCN must navigate a complicated web of service systems with dueling eligibility criteria and confusing payment policies. This can result in delayed or denied services for children and financial hardship for families. State policy must work toward a unified, efficient and comprehensive payment system for health care and developmental services (6, 8), as well as ensuring adequate funding for special education services (9).
For more policy ideas, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section and our Program for Children with Special Health Care Needs site.

Sources for this narrative:

1.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. (2013). The National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs chartbook 2009-2010. Retrieved from: http://mchb.hrsa.gov/cshcn0910/

2.  Peterson, S., et al. (2007). 
Quality care for special kids; Profiles of children with chronic conditions and disabilities. Mathematica Policy Research Inc. & U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/PDFs/qualitycareupdate4.pdf

3.  Okumura, M. J., et al. (2009). Understanding factors associated with work loss for families caring for CSHCN. 
Pediatrics, 124(Suppl. 4), S393-S398. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/Supplement_4/S392

4.  Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health and Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2013). 
Children with special health care needs in California: A profile of key issues. Retrieved from http://lpfch-cshcn.org/publications/research-reports/children-with-special-health-care-needs-in-california-a-profile-of-key-issues   

5.  Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs and Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. (2014).
Standards for systems of care for children and youth with special health care needs. Retrieved from: http://www.lpfch.org/publication/standards-systems-care-children-and-youth-special-health-care-needs

6.  Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. (2009). 
California's service system for children and youth with special health care needs: Analysis and recommendations for a service system that works for children and families. Retrieved from: http://www.lpfch.org/californiaservicesystem/ 

7.  Gans D., et al. (2013).
Assuring children’s access to pediatric subspecialty care in California. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. Retrieved from: http://lpfch-cshcn.org/publications/issue-briefs/assuring-childrens-access-to-pediatric-subspecialty-care-in-california/

8.  Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs and Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. (2009). 
Models of care for children and youth with special health care needs: Promising models for transforming California’s system of care. Retrieved from: http://www.lpfch.org/nationalmodels/

9.  Minow, M. L. (2001). 
Funding mechanisms in special education. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from: http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_funding.html
Websites with Related Information
Key Reports
County/Regional Reports
More Data Sources For Demographics of Children with Special Needs