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- Definition: Number of public school students eligible to receive free or reduced price meals. A child's family income must fall below 130% of the federal poverty guidelines ($31,005 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for free meals, or below 185% of the federal poverty guidelines ($44,123 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for reduced price meals.Percentage of public school students eligible to receive free or reduced price meals. A child's family income must fall below 130% of the federal poverty guidelines ($31,005 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for free meals, or below 185% of the federal poverty guidelines ($44,123 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for reduced price meals.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, Student Poverty FRPM Data (Mar. 2016); U.S. Dept. of Education, NCES Digest of Education Statistics (Mar. 2016).
- Footnote: Years presented are the final year of a school year (e.g., 2014-2015 is shown as 2015). LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because fewer than 20 students were eligible for the program. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of Food Security on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org provides the following indicators of food security:
A child’s family income must fall below 130% of the federal poverty guidelines ($31,005 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for free meals, or below 185% of the federal poverty guidelines ($44,123 for a family of four in 2014-2015) to qualify for reduced price meals.
- The number of individuals and the number and percentage of households, by race/ethnicity, participating in the CalFresh supplemental food program, formerly known as Food Stamps; these data are from the California Department of Social Services (CDSS)*
- The estimated number and percentage of children under age 18 living in households with limited or uncertain access to adequate food (i.e., children living in “food insecure” households), calculated by Feeding America; these data also are shown for U.S. Congressional Districts
- The number and percentage of K-12 public school students who are eligible to receive free or reduced price school meals overall, and by eligibility status (i.e., the number and percentage of students who are eligible to receive free school meals, eligible for reduced price school meals, and not eligible for this program); these data are from the California Department of Education
* According to CDSS, more than half of CalFresh participants are children.
- Food Security
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Family Income and Poverty
- Self-Sufficiency Standard
- Children in Poverty - Supplemental Poverty Measure (State & U.S. Only)
- Children in Poverty (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Poverty (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living Above and Below the Poverty Level (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Income Level
- Children Living Above and Below the Poverty Level (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Income Level
- Children Living in Areas of Concentrated Poverty
- Median Family Income, by Family Type (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Low-Income Working Families, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- CalWORKs Recipients
- Housing Affordability
- Fair Market Rent, by Unit Size
- Households with a High Housing Cost Burden, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Crowded Households, by County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Drinking One or More Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Per Day
- Children Who Ate Fast Food Two or More Times in the Past Week, by Age Group
- Children Who Eat Five or More Servings of Fruits/Vegetables Daily, by Age Group
- Students Who Ate Breakfast in Past Day (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Healthy Food Choices Provided at School (Staff Reported)
- Why This Topic Is Important
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines food insecurity as not having consistent, dependable access to enough food for active, healthy living (1). According to 2014 estimates, children were food insecure at some time during the year in 9.4% of American households with children. This translates to an estimated 3.7 million households that were unable to provide adequate, nutritious food for their children nationwide (1). Free or reduced price school meal (FRPM) and Food Stamp programs (e.g., CalFresh), among others, provide a safety net to help ensure that low-income children get adequate nutrition (1). These programs address food insecurity among low-income children and are related to improvements in students’ physical health (including obesity), behavior, school performance, and cognitive development (2, 3, 4).
Student eligibility for FRPM serves as a proxy measure of family poverty, as the federal poverty threshold tends to underestimate the extent of poverty, particularly in high cost areas. Research indicates that families in California can earn two or more times the federal poverty level and still struggle to meet their basic needs (5). Income eligibility for FRPM programs goes up to 185% of federal poverty (about $44,000 for a family of four in 2014-2015).For more information on Food Security, please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section. Also see kidsdata.org’s other topics related to Family Economics.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Coleman-Jensen, A., et al. (2015). Household food security in the United States in 2014 (Economic Research Report No. 194). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Retrieved from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err-economic-research-report/err194.aspx
2. Food Research and Action Center. (2013). SNAP and public health: The role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in improving the health and well-being of Americans. Retrieved from: http://frac.org/reports-and-resources/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap/#snaphealth
3. Gundersen, C., et al. (2012). The impact of the National School Lunch Program on child health: A nonparametric bounds analysis. Journal of Econometrics, 166(1), 79-91. Retrieved from: http://people.virginia.edu/~jvp3m/abstracts/SchoolLunch.pdf
4. Food Research and Action Center. (n.d.). National School Lunch Program fact sheet. Retrieved from: http://frac.org/federal-foodnutrition-programs/national-school-lunch-program
5. As cited on kidsdata.org, Self-Sufficiency Standard. (2015). Insight Center for Community Economic Development and Dr. Diana Pearce, California Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Standard. Center for Women's Welfare, School of Social Work, University of Washington.
- How Children Are Faring
Nearly 59% of all public school students in California are eligible for free or reduced price school meals (meaning their household incomes are less than about $44,000 for a family of four), according to 2015 data. This equates to over 3.5 million low-income students statewide, an increase from about 3.2 million (51%) in 2007. County and school district data show increases, as well; between 2007 and 2015, percentages rose in all but one county and in most school districts with available data. At the county level, the percentage of students eligible for free/reduced price meals ranged from 26% to 80% in 2015. Many more students are eligible for free meals than for reduced price meals. In 2015, over 3 million California students (50% of all students) were eligible for free meals, while over 500,000 (9%) were eligible for reduced price meals.
In 2015, almost 4.5 million Californians participated in the CalFresh supplemental food program, formerly known as Food Stamps. Hispanic/Latino and white households represented the majority of CalFresh participants in 2015, accounting for 75% of the approximately 2.1 million participating households.
In 2014 an estimate of almost 2.1 million California children (23% of the child population) lived in “food insecure” households with uncertain or inadequate access to food, down from nearly 2.5 million (27% of the child population) in 2011.
- Policy Implications
Food and nutrition assistance programs have the potential to increase food security and provide low-income children with nutritious and affordable meals (1). However, these programs are not used by many children who are eligible. For example, in California public schools, 30% of the state’s 3.5 million low-income students miss out on free or reduced price school lunch, and 65% miss out on school breakfast (2).
According to research and subject experts, policy and program actions that could improve nutrition assistance participation, and the quality of the meals themselves, include:
For more policy recommendations and research on this topic, see the kidsdata.org's Research & Links section or visit California Food Policy Advocates, the Food Research & Action Center, and Action for Healthy Kids. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Family Income and Poverty, and Nutrition.
- Utilizing authority under state law and the federal Child Nutrition Act to support efforts to make it simpler and less stigmatizing for students to access free and reduced price school meals, while streamlining administration at the school level; this includes “direct certification,” which allows school districts to automatically qualify children whose families participate in CalWORKS or CalFresh for free school meals (3, 4)
- Adopting school district-wide use of effective service models such as Classroom Breakfast, Second Chance Breakfast, and Grab n’ Go (different approaches to serving breakfast during the school day, in class, or outside of traditional settings) to increase participation and decrease stigma associated with subsidized breakfast (4)
- Ensuring the availability of nutritious, appealing foods at school meals without competition from less healthful foods, thereby supporting healthy dietary habits (5)
- Making healthful snacks available and affordable in schools, which can lead to students’ increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (6)
Sources for this narrative:
1. Food Research and Action Center. (2013). SNAP and public health: The role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in improving the health and well-being of Americans. Retrieved from: http://frac.org/reports-and-resources/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap/#snaphealth
2. California Food Policy Advocates. (2015). School meal access and participation: California statewide summary 2013-14. Retrieved from: http://cfpa.net/school-meal-analysis-2013-14
3. Moore, Q., et al. (2013). Direct certification in the National School Lunch Program: State implementation progress, school year 2012-2013 (Report No. CN-13-DC). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Policy Support. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/direct-certification-national-school-lunch-program-state-implementation-progress-school-year-2012
4. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, S. 3307, 111th Cong. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s111-3307
5. Crawford, P. B., et al. (2011). The ethical basis for promoting nutritional health in public schools in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease, 8(5), A98. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181198
6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2013). Smart snacks in school. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/smart-snacks-school-infographic
- Websites with Related Information
- Key Reports
- Child Nutrition Programs: Spending and Policy Options, 2015, Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office
- Childhood Food Insecurity in the U.S.: Trends, Causes, and Policy Options, 2014, The Future of Children, Gundersen, C., & Ziliak, J. P.
- Enrollment in Health and Nutrition Safety Net Programs Among California's Children, 2015, Public Policy Institute of California, Beck, L., et al.
- Food Assistance Programs and Child Health, 2015, The Future of Children, Gundersen, C.
- Food Security, Health, and Well-Being, 2014, Food Insecurity and Hunger in the U.S.: New Research
- Household Food Security in the United States in 2014, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Coleman-Jensen, A., et al.
- How Hungry is America?, 2016, Food Research & Action Center
- Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report, 2016, Food Research & Action Center
- Long-Term Benefits of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, 2015, The White House Council of Economic Advisers
- National School Lunch Program: Trends and Factors Affecting Student Participation, 2015, Food Research and Action Center
- Portrait of Promise: The California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity (Food Security and Nutrition Section), 2015, California Dept. of Public Health, Office of Health Equity
- Promoting Food Security for All Children, 2015, Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Community Pediatrics & Committee on Nutrition
- School’s Out…Who Ate? A Report on Summer Nutrition in California, 2016, California Food Policy Advocates, Fischer Colby, A., & Shimada, T.
- The CalFresh Food Assistance Program, 2016, Public Policy Institute of California, Danielson, C., & Bandy, M.
- County/Regional Reports
- 2014 Solano Children's Report Card, Children's Network of Solano County
- 2016 Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- Community Health Assessment 2015, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- Fresno Community Scorecard
- Rising Food Insecurity in Los Angeles County, 2015, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- San Diego County Report Card on Children and Families, 2015, The Children's Initiative & Live Well San Diego
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2016 Data Book, Planned Parenthood & Kids in Common
- The 21st Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County, 2015, Orange County Children's Partnership
- More Data Sources For Food Security
- California Health Interview Survey, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research
- Child Trends Databank: Food Insecurity
- Community Commons: Community Health Needs Assessment
- County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation & University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute
- Map the Meal Gap, Feeding America
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Center for Health Statistics
- Nutrition and Food Insecurity Profiles, California Food Policy Advocates
- Self-Sufficiency Standard Tool for California, Insight Center for Community Economic Development
- SNAP-Ed County Profiles 2015, California Dept. of Public Health
- USDA Economic Research Service: Food Environment Atlas