Download & Other Tools
- Definition: Number of K-12 public school students who have been expelled.Percentage of K-12 public school students who have been expelled.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, DataQuest website. Accessed at http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest
- Footnote: Beginning in 2012, expulsions are tracked for individual students to produce unduplicated counts. Therefore, data for 2012 are not comparable with data for previous years, which included duplicate counts of students who were expelled multiple times. Data for the state and counties may not match the sum across individual districts. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because there were fewer than 20 students expelled. N/A means that data are not available.
- Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Any Reason For Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Any Bias-Related Reason For Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Disability as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Gender as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Race or National Origin as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Religion as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Sexual Orientation as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Other Non-Specified Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Child Population
- Public School Enrollment
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Total Population
- College Eligibility
- Community Connectedness
- Caring Adults in the Community, by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Adults in the Community, by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation in the Community, by Grade Level
- Total Community Assets, by Grade Level
- Disconnected Youth
- High School Graduation
- Impact of Special Health Care Needs on Children & Families (State-Level Data)
- Math Proficiency
- Pupil Support Service Personnel
- Reading Proficiency
- School Safety
- Perceptions of School Safety, by Grade Level
- Fear of Being Beaten Up at School, by Grade Level
- Physical Fighting at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Knife or Other Weapon at School, by Grade Level
- School Connectedness
- Caring Adults at School, by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Teachers and Others, by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation at School, by Grade Level
- Total School Assets, by Grade Level
- School Connectedness, by Grade Level
- Why This Topic Is Important
Regular school attendance is a predictor of academic success. Conversely, frequent absences are related to negative outcomes, such as dropping out of high school, which can have lifelong effects on employment and earning potential (1, 2). A child might miss school for many reasons, including health problems or other excused absences, unexcused absences (truancy), and exclusionary punishments (suspensions and expulsions).
Research shows that suspensions and expulsions can exacerbate student academic problems, amplify the achievement gap between low-income children and their higher-income peers, and contribute to student involvement in the juvenile justice system (3). Suspensions and expulsions disproportionately affect students of color, students with disabilities, students in foster care, and non-heterosexual youth (4, 5, 6). In 2006, an estimated 3.3 million U.S. students were suspended and 102,000 were expelled. That year, California’s suspension and expulsion rates were the 12th and 10th highest in the nation, respectively (7).
For more information on truancy, suspensions, & expulsions, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Child Trends. (2010). Student absenteeism. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=student-absenteeism
2. Aud, S., et al. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups. (NCES 2010-015). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/intro.asp
3. Dufresne, A., et al. (2010). Teaching discipline: A toolkit for educators on positive alternatives to out-of-school suspensions. New Haven, CT: Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/pub_detail_515.html
4. Losen, D. J. (2011). Discipline policies, successful schools, and racial justice. Boulder, CO: Discipline in Schools Campaign, National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/discipline-policies
5. Leone, P., & Weinberg, L. (2010). Addressing the unmet educational needs of children and youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. Washington, DC: Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, Georgetown University. Retrieved from: http://www.modelsforchange.net/publications/260
6. Himmelstein, K., & Brückner, H. (2011). Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: A national longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127(1), 53. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2010/12/06/peds.2009-2306.abstract
7. Dignity in Schools Campaign. (n.d.). State fact sheets on school pushout: California. Retrieved from: http://www.dignityinschools.org/sites/default/files/California%20Pushout%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
- Measures of Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org offers the following measures:
Truant Students, Suspensions from School, and Expulsions from School come from the California Department of Education's DataQuest site. Truant Students (Self-Reported) comes from the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) through a partnership with WestEd and the California Department of Education.
- Truant Students: The number and percent of K-12 public school students who missed more than 30 minutes of instruction without an excuse three or more times during the school year. This measure does not include students considered chronically truant (i.e., students whose unexcused and excused absences total 10% or more of all school days in a year).
- Truant Students (Self-Reported): The percentage of students in grades 7, 9, and 11, and non-traditional students, reporting whether in the past 12 months they had skipped school or cut class, by grade level, gender and grade level, level of connectedness to school, and race/ethnicity.
- Suspensions from School: The number and rate of suspensions per 100 K-12 public school students. Beginning in 2012, suspensions are tracked for individual students to produce unduplicated counts. Therefore, data for 2012 are not comparable with data for previous years, which included duplicate counts of students who were suspended multiple times.
- Expulsions from School: The unduplicated number and percent of expulsions among K-12 public school students.
"Non-traditional" students are those enrolled in Community Day Schools or Continuation Education. According to EdSource, nearly 10% of public school students in California are enrolled in these programs.
- How Children Are Faring
In 2012, more than 1.8 million public school students in California, 28.5% of all public school students that year, were truant (i.e., they missed more than 30 minutes of school instruction without an excuse three or more times during the year). The percentage of students who are truant has risen 26% between 2005 and 2012.
In 2008-10, about 8% of 7th graders, 18% of 9th graders, and 29% of 11th graders in California reported that they had skipped school or cut class in the past year. Students who felt less connected to their schools more often reported skipping school or cutting class.
More than 360,000 students were suspended (5.7 per every 100 students) and over 9,500 students (0.1%) were expelled in California in 2012.
- Policy Implications
In recent years, school suspensions and expulsions have increased with adoption of “zero tolerance” discipline policies designed to combat school violence and other transgressions, ranging from dress code violations to drug possession (5). While removing disruptive or dangerous students sometimes is necessary, research indicates that suspension/expulsion can have adverse effects on academic performance and student behavior (2, 5, 7).
Researchers also have documented significant disparate disciplinary treatment of African American/Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Latino students (6).
Policies that help schools document absenteeism and truancy early, identify patterns, and then intervene in non-punitive ways can ameliorate the negative effects of children missing school and potentially address root causes (1, 2). Effectively addressing truancy requires collaboration from schools, law enforcement, courts, social services, and other community organizations (2).
According to research and subject experts, policy options that could reduce chronic truancy and ensure that discipline is both equitable and effective include:
- Uncovering and flagging chronic absenteeism (including excused or unexcused absences) early in elementary and middle school through specific data reporting at the individual, classroom, and school levels (3, 4, 5)
- Recognizing and promoting good attendance, and providing individualized and supportive attention from adults and the community (4, 5)
- Collecting data at the school and district levels on the prevalence of suspensions and expulsions by student racial/ethnic background, gender, and disability status; and tracking data on the effectiveness of school discipline policies and their impact on learning (6, 7)
- Addressing discriminatory discipline policies through administrative or legal enforcement (6)
- Implementing school- or district-wide, preventive approaches, such as positive social and behavioral learning programs (5)
- Supporting use of alternative, non-punitive discipline approaches that address the unique needs of students and their families, promote good behavior, and minimize loss of learning time; these may include restorative justice strategies and programs that focus on skill-building (2, 5, 7)
For more policy ideas about Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section, or visit Attendance Works, the National Center for School Engagement, and the Dignity in Schools Campaign. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under these topics: School Connectedness, High School Graduation, and Bullying/Harassment at School.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Maynard, B. R., et al. (2012). Indicated truancy interventions: Effects on school attendance among chronic truant students. Campbell Collaboration. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED535217&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED535217
2. Judicial Council of California, Administrative Office of the Courts, Center for Families, Children & the Courts. (2012). Truancy and school discipline: An overview of the literature and statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/AOC_Briefing_-_Truancy_and_School_Discipline.pdf
3. Blazer, C. (2011). Chronic absenteeism in the elementary grades. Information Capsule: Research Services, 1009. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED536529&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED536529
4. Cole, J. F. (2011). Interventions to combat the many facets of absenteeism: Action research. Georgia School Counselors Association Journal, 18(1), 62-70. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=EJ963130
5. Boccanfuso, C., & Kuhfeld, M. (2011). Multiple responses, promising results: Evidence-based, nonpunitive alternatives to zero tolerance. Child Trends: Research Brief. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?publications=multiple-responses-promising-results-evidence-based-nonpunitive-alternatives-to-zero-tolerance
6. Losen, D. (2011). Discipline polices, successful schools, and racial justice. National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4q41361g#page-17. Losen, D., & Martinez, T. E. (2013). Out of school and off track: The overuse of suspensions in American middle and high schools. The Center for Civil Rights Remedies. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541735.pdf
- Websites with Related Information
- Attendance Works: Advancing Student Success By Reducing Chronic Absence
- Child Trends
- Dignity in Schools Campaign
- National Center for School Engagement
- National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
- Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports: Effective Schoolwide Interventions, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs
- The Civil Rights Project: School Discipline, UCLA
- WestEd: Health, Safety, & Well-Being
- Key Reports
- Chronic Absenteeism in the Elementary Grades, Information Capsule: Research Services v1009
- Criminal-Justice and School Sanctions Against Nonheterosexual Youth: A National Longitudinal Study, Pediatrics
- Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice, National Education Policy Center, University of Colorado Boulder
- Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School, UCLA, The Civil Rights Project
- Peer Victimization in Schools: A Set of Quantitative and Qualitative Studies of the Connections Among Peer Victimization, School Engagement, Truancy, School Achievement, and Other Outcomes, National Center for School Engagement
- Present, Engaged & Accounted For: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades, National Center for Children in Poverty
- School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors Among Youth, Department of Health and Human Services
- School-Based Restorative Justice as an Alternative to Zero-Tolerance Policies: Lesson from West Oakland, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law
- Truancy and School Discipline: An Overview of the Literature and Statistics, Judicial Council of California, Administrative Office of the Courts, Center for Families, Children & the Courts
- Truancy Literature Review, U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
- Truancy Prevention, National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention
- County/Regional Reports