Cigarette Use in Past Month (Student Reported), by Level of Connectedness to School
Definition: Percentage of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and non-traditional students reporting the number of days in which they smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days, by level of connectedness to school (e.g., in 2011-13, 95% of students in grades 7, 9, 11, and non-traditional students in California public schools with high levels of connectedness to school reported that they had not smoked cigarettes in the past month).
Footnote: The 2011-2013 time period reflects data from school years 2011-12 and 2012-13. District- and county-level figures are weighted proportions from the 2011-13 California Healthy Kids Survey, and state-level figures are weighted proportions from the 2011-13 California Student Survey. The grade levels included in school district data depend on the grades offered in each district; for example, high school districts do not include 7th grade data. "Non-Traditional" students are those enrolled in Community Day Schools or Continuation Education; according to Ed-Data, these schools make up about 10% of all public schools in California. N/A indicates that the survey was not administered in that period or that data are not available for that group. LNE (Low Number Event) indicates that for a specific answer there were fewer than 25 respondents. N/R indicates that the sample is too small to be representative. School connectedness includes being treated fairly, feeling close to people, feeling happy, feeling part of, and feeling safe at school. The level of school connectedness is based on a scale created from student responses to 5 survey questions. See the guidebooks for the “Core” or “Resilience and Youth Development” survey modules at http://chks.wested.org/about for more information.
Learn More About Youth Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use
Measures of Youth Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use on Kidsdata.org
* These data are available by grade level (7th, 9th, 11th, and non-traditional students), gender, race/ethnicity, and level of connectedness to school. School connectedness is a summary measure that includes the following elements: being treated fairly, feeling close to people, feeling happy, feeling part of school, and feeling safe at school.
Youth alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use is associated with a wide range of health, social, and academic problems. Teen alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to risky health behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex), poor academic performance, cognitive functioning problems, physical and/or dating violence, motor vehicle accidents, crime, and suicide attempts (1, 2). Drinking during adolescence also is linked to a higher risk of alcohol dependence in adulthood, and excessive alcohol consumption can have long-term health consequences, including liver disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, among other chronic conditions (1, 2). Cigarette smoking during the teen years is related to risky behavior, such as drinking and other drug use (3). Most long-term smokers start when they are teens or young adults, and sustained smoking is associated with cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness, and other health problems (4). The federal government reports that tobacco is the leading cause of preventable and premature death in the U.S., resulting in more than 440,000 deaths annually (4). Marijuana use, too, is linked to adverse effects, such as anxiety attacks, cognitive difficulties, coordination loss, and respiratory problems, as well as aggressive behavior and poor academic performance among youth (5).
Alcohol is the most widely used substance among the nation's youth (2, 6). According to 2014 data, 37% of U.S. 12th graders reported drinking an alcoholic beverage at least once in the past month, and 19% reported binge drinking (5+ drinks in a row) at least once in the past two weeks, the lowest levels in decades (6). Youth reports of cigarette smoking also have been on the decline, with about 14% of 12th graders reporting use at least once in the past month and 7% reporting daily use, based on a 2014 survey (6). The same survey gathered data on marijuana use and found that about one in five (21%) 12th graders reported using marijuana in the past month, and about 6% reported using it daily, similar to previous years (6). While progress has been made in many areas to reduce youth substance use, it remains a significant public health concern (2).
For more information about youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use, see kidsdata.org'sResearch & Links section.
According to 2011-13 data, 15% of 7th graders, 26% of 9th graders, and 38% of 11th graders in California public schools reported using alcohol or any illegal drug (excluding tobacco) in the past 30 days. When asked if they had ever consumed alcohol, 38% of 9th graders and 59% of 11th
reported having at least one full drink in their lifetime. Percentages typically are lower for reported cigarette use,
marijuana use, and recreational use of prescription drugs, and also are lower among 7th graders than 9th and 11th graders. Non-traditional students, those enrolled in Community Day Schools or Continuation Education, more frequently report substance use. Students who report feeling less connected to their
schools also report higher levels of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug
Public school staff reports of the extent to which alcohol or drug use is a problem at their school echo student responses. According to 2011-13 data, more than half (53%) of California high school staff reported that student alcohol and drug use is a 'moderate' or 'severe' problem.
Public policy can promote early identification of known risk factors for youth substance use, such as poor school performance, truancy, lack of parental supervision, aggressive behavior, drug availability, and substance use by peers (1, 2, 3). It also can promote protective factors, such as school engagement, positive community connections, and academic success (1). Screening and early intervention can be effective, especially when specifically tailored to the population and risk factors (3, 4). Controlling youth smoking and alcohol consumption also requires particular attention to mass media and marketing (5, 6, 8).
According to research and subject experts, policy options for addressing youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use include:
Prioritizing screening and early identification of risk factors correlated with substance use, especially among middle school youth; screening should include mental health issues, as they often co-occur with substance abuse (3, 4)
Developing comprehensive policies that promote school and community “connectedness” among youth and help them develop the knowledge, skills, and motivation to avoid substance use; such policies should focus on preadolescence through young adulthood and involve support from families, schools, colleges, community organizations, government, and others (6, 7, 8)
Promoting youth-focused, mass media counter-marketing strategies to combat tobacco and alcohol advertising and its appealing depiction in the media; and reducing youth exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing, including monitoring compliance with marketing standards (5, 6, 8)
Ensuring adequate funding, accessibility, and availability of developmentally appropriate, research-based treatment for youth substance abuse (3, 4)
Continuing to enforce, strengthen, and extend evidence-based legislation, such as increased prices on alcohol and tobacco products, and keg registration requirements (6, 8, 9)