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- Definition: Number of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners. English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English language skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular school instructional programs.Percentage of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners. English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English language skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular school instructional programs.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, English Learners by Grade and Language Data Files and California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS) (May 2015).
- Footnote: Years presented are the final year of a school year (e.g., 2014-2015 is shown as 2015). Data for the state, counties, and some school districts are not available in 2011 because many districts did not report English Learner data by language that year. However, 2011 data are available for the related indicator, English Learners in Public Schools. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because fewer than 60 students were enrolled in school. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of English Learners on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org offers the number and percentage of English Learners among public school students, the number and percentage of English Learners by status (i.e., English Learners-Spanish speaking, English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish, or not an English Learner), and the top 10 languages spoken most frequently by English Learners. English Learners are students who have a primary language other than English and who lack the clearly defined English skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in a school's regular instructional programs.
- English Learners
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Foreign-Born Population, by Age Group (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Reading Proficiency
- Why This Topic Is Important
Trends in English proficiency and primary languages spoken among children and families can be useful in projecting potential needs and planning appropriate services in health care, education, child care, and other settings. For example, quality health care requires effective communication between families and providers. Research shows that children in families with a primary language other than English experience disparities in health status, quality of health care services, and access to care, compared to children with English as a primary household language (1). Academically, children with limited English proficiency tend to have lower test scores than their native English-speaking peers. English Learners face the challenge of mastering content presented in the school curriculum at the same time they learn a new language (2, 3, 4). These circumstances create exceptional challenges for later educational attainment and socioeconomic success.
California’s public school system is charged with serving a diverse student body. In 2012-13, more than 2.6 million California students (43%) spoke a language other than English at home (3); this far exceeds the national estimate of 21% in 2012 (5). At least 60 different primary languages are reported among California students classified as English Learners (6). To ensure that children with limited English proficiency reach their maximum academic and health potential, it is critical for California’s education, health, social service, and community systems to be adequately prepared to meet the needs of the state’s increasingly diverse child and family population.For more information on English Learners please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Flores, G., & Tomany-Korman, S. C. (2008). The language spoken at home and disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in U.S. children. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1703-e1714. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/6/e1703
2. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2015). Language spoken at home and difficulty speaking English. In America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being, 2015. U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/family5.asp
3. California Department of Education. (2014). Facts about English learners in California. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/cb/cefelfacts.asp
4. Fry, R. (2007). How far behind in math and reading are English language learners? Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2007/06/06/how-far-behind-in-math-and-reading-are-english-language-learners/
5. U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). American Community Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs.html
6. California Department of Education. (n.d.). State of California language group data - Statewide for 2014-15. Retrieved from: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/lc/StateLC-alphabetical.aspx?Level=State&cYear=2014-15
- How Children Are Faring
In 2015, 22% of all California public school students were classified as English Learners, which equates to nearly 1.4 million students with limited English proficiency. The percentage of English Learners remained around 25% between 1998-2008, but has declined slightly since then.
In 2015 and previous years, Spanish was by far the most common first language of students classified as English Learners, statewide and in virtually all counties with available data. Nearly one in five (19%) California public school students were Spanish-speaking English Learners in 2015; 4% were English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish. Following Spanish, the state’s second and third most popular languages were Vietnamese and Filipino.
- Policy Implications
More than 1 in every 5 of California’s public school students— almost 1.4 million—have limited English proficiency (1). These children face a variety of educational challenges that policymakers and educators are working to address through targeted instruction, setting high expectations for academic achievement for all students, and improving dropout prevention policies. Currently, only about 63% of English Learners in the state’s public schools graduate from high school (2). Students who are learning English also often have parents with limited or no ability to speak English, which may result in barriers to accessing health care or other services that support academic achievement.
According to research and subject experts, policy options for addressing the challenges faced by children who are English Learners include:
For more policy ideas and information on this topic see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section or visit the Urban Institute, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, or the National Immigration Law Center. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Immigrants, and Reading and Math Proficiency.
- Adopting practices with demonstrated effectiveness at the district and school level, such as: strategic use of academic assessment data; implementing a coherent, standards-based curriculum and program; using measurable and monitored achievement objectives; ensuring availability of teaching resources; securing district-level support for English Learners; using resource teachers for individualized programs; and using immersion techniques (such as Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) to teach math to English Learners (3)
- Setting school and district policies to incorporate formal and informal strategies to promote family and community engagement (4)
- Ensuring that teacher candidates understand second language and literacy acquisition and how they inform effective instruction (5)
- Improving access to publicly funded social services, including targeted outreach to non-English speakers for state child care subsidies; conducting public education on language access rights for medical patients and their families; and enforcing existing language access laws in health care settings (6, 7)
Sources for this narrative:
1. As cited on kidsdata.org, English Learners in public schools. (2015). California Department of Education, DataQuest. Retrieved from: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
2. Education Data Partnership. (n.d.). Cohort graduates - English learners and socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Retrieved from: http://www.ed-data.org/ShareData/Html/1675
3. Williams, T., et al. (2007). Similar English learner students, different results: Why do some schools do better? EdSource. Retrieved from: http://www.edsource.org/wp-content/publications/SimELreportcomplete.pdf
4. Lazarín, M., & Ortiz-Licon, F. (2010). Next generation charter schools: Meeting the needs of Latinos and English language learners. Center for American Progress & National Council of La Raza. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/report/2010/09/01/8329/next-generation-charter-schools/
5. Santos, M., et al. (2011). Teacher development to support English language learners in the context of Common Core State Standards. Understanding Language, Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://ell.stanford.edu/publication/teacher-development-appropriate-support-ells
6. Firgens, E., & Matthews, H. (2012). State child care policies for limited English proficient families. Center for Law and Social Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.clasp.org/issues/child-care-and-early-education/in-focus/new-clasp-paper-looks-at-state-child-care-policies-for-limited-english-proficient-families
7. Chen, A. H., et al. (2007). The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(Suppl. 2), 362–367. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11606-007-0366-2
- Websites with Related Information
- Education Commission of the States
- English Learners, California Dept. of Education
- National Council of La Raza
- Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project: Language
- Public Policy Institute of California: K-12 Education
- Spanish-Language Health Resources Knowledge Path, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health
- Key Reports
- Asian Pacific Islander (API) Population Report: In Our Own Words, 2013, California Dept. of Public Health, Office Of Health Equity
- Community-Defined Solutions for Latino Mental Health Care Disparities, 2012, UC Davis Center for Reducing Health Disparities, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., et al.
- English Proficiency of Immigrants, 3/2011, Public Policy Institute of California, Hill, L.
- Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress, 2012, U.S. Dept. of Education, Cook, G., et al.
- Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States, 2015, Migration Policy Institute, Zong, J., & Batalova, J.
- Hispanic Nativity Shift: U.S. Births Drive Population Growth as Immigration Stalls, 2014, Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project, Krogstad, J. M., & Lopez, M. H.
- Immigrant Children, 2011, The Future of Children, 21(1)
- Immigrants in California, 2013, Public Policy Institute of California, Johnson, H., & Mejia, M. C.
- Improving the Opportunities and Outcomes of California's Students Learning English: Findings from School District-University Collaborative Partnerships, 2015, Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, Umansky, I., et al.
- Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners: A Survey of California Teachers’ Challenges, Experiences, and Professional Development Needs, 2005, Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, Gándara, P., et al.
- Preparing All Teachers to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners, 4/2012, Center for American Progress, Samson, J. F., & Collins, B. A.
- Providing Care for Immigrant, Migrant, and Border Children, 2013, Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Community Pediatrics
- Teacher Development to Support English Language Learners in the Context of Common Core State Standards, 2012, Understanding Language, Stanford University, Santos, M., et al.
- The Rise of Asian Americans, 2013, Pew Research Center's Social and Demographic Trends Project
- County/Regional Reports
- Fresno Community Scorecard, Fresno Business Council and Valley PBS
- Key Indicators of Health by Service Planning Area, 2013, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service Planning Area, 2009, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, Ichinose, D. K., et al.
- Language Access Needs in Alameda County: New and Emerging Immigrant and Refugee Communities, 2008, The California Endowment
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2015 Data Book, Planned Parenthood and Kids in Common
- The Wellbeing Project, City of Santa Monica
- More Data Sources For English Learners
- Children of Immigrants Data Tool, Urban Institute
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- DataQuest, California Dept. of Education
- ED Data Express: Data About Elementary and Secondary Schools in the U.S., U.S. Department of Education
- Local Control Funding Formula Reports, California Department of Education
- The Youngest Americans: A Statistical Portrait of Infants and Toddlers in the United States, 2013, Child Trends, Murphey, D., et al.