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- Definition: Number of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners (e.g., in 2016, 1,147,404 California public school students were English Learners with Spanish as a primary language). English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English language skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular school instructional programs.Percentage of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners (e.g., in 2016, 18.4% of California public school students were English Learners with Spanish as a primary language). English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English language skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular school instructional programs.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, DataQuest (May 2016).
- Footnote: Years presented are the final year of a school year (e.g., 2015-2016 is shown as 2016). Data for the state, counties, and some school districts are not available for 2011 because many districts did not report English Learner data by language that year. However, 2011 data are available for the related indicator, English Learners in Public Schools. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because fewer than 60 students were enrolled in school. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of English Learners on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org offers the number and percentage of English Learners among public school students, the number and percentage of students by English Learner status (i.e., English Learners with Spanish as a primary language, English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish, or non-English Learners), and the top 10 primary languages spoken most frequently by English Learners. English Learners are students who have a primary language other than English and who lack the clearly defined English skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in a school's regular instructional programs.
- English Learners
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population, by County
- Child Population, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Foreign-Born Population, by Age Group (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Reading Proficiency
- Why This Topic Is Important
Trends in English proficiency and primary languages spoken among children and families can be useful in projecting potential needs and planning appropriate services in health care, education, child care, and other settings. For example, quality health care requires effective communication between families and providers. Research shows that children in families with a primary language other than English experience disparities in health status, quality of health care services, and access to care, compared to children with English as a primary household language (1). Academically, children with limited English proficiency tend to have lower test scores than their native English-speaking peers. English Learners face the challenge of mastering content presented in the school curriculum at the same time they learn a new language (2, 3, 4). These circumstances create exceptional challenges for later educational attainment and socioeconomic success.
California’s public school system is charged with serving a diverse student body. In 2015 more than 2.6 million California students (43%) spoke a language other than English at home, compared to a national estimate of 22% among all children ages 5-17 (3, 5). More than 65 primary languages are reported among California students classified as English Learners (6). To ensure that children with limited English proficiency reach their maximum academic and health potential, it is critical for California’s education, health, social service, and community systems to be adequately prepared to meet the needs of the state’s increasingly diverse child and family population.For more information on English Learners please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Flores, G., & Tomany-Korman, S. C. (2008). The language spoken at home and disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in U.S. children. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1703-e1714. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/6/e1703
2. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2015). Language spoken at home and difficulty speaking English. In America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being, 2015. U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren15/family5.asp
3. California Department of Education. (2016). Facts about English Learners in California. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/cb/cefelfacts.asp
4. Fry, R. (2007). How far behind in math and reading are English language learners? Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2007/06/06/how-far-behind-in-math-and-reading-are-english-language-learners
5. KIDS COUNT Data Center. (2016). Children who speak a language other than English at home. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from: http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/81-children-who-speak-a-language-other-than-english-at-home
6. California Department of Education. (n.d.). State of California language group data - Statewide for 2014-15. Retrieved from: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/lc/StateLC-alphabetical.aspx?Level=State&cYear=2015-16
- How Children Are Faring
In 2016, 22% of all California public school students were classified as English Learners, which equates to more than 1.3 million students with limited English proficiency. The percentage of English Learners remained around 22% to 26% between 1998-2016.
In 2016 and previous years, Spanish was by far the most common first language of students classified as English Learners, statewide and in virtually all counties with available data. Nearly one in five (18%) California public school students were Spanish-speaking English Learners in 2016; 4% were English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish. Following Spanish, the state’s most common non-English primary languages were Vietnamese and Mandarin.
- Policy Implications
More than 1 in every 5 of California’s public school students—almost 1.4 million—have limited English proficiency (1). These children face a variety of educational challenges that policymakers and educators are working to address through targeted instruction, setting high expectations for academic achievement for all students, and improving dropout prevention policies. Currently, only about 70% of English Learners in the state’s public schools graduate from high school (2). Students who are learning English also often have parents with limited or no ability to speak English, which may result in barriers to accessing health care or other services that support academic achievement.
Policy options for addressing the challenges faced by children who are English Learners include:
For more policy ideas and information on this topic see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section or visit the Urban Institute, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, or the National Immigration Law Center. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Immigrants, and Reading and Math Proficiency.
- Adopting practices with demonstrated effectiveness at the district and school level, such as: strategic use of academic assessment data; implementing a coherent, standards-based curriculum and program; using measurable and monitored achievement objectives; ensuring availability of teaching resources; securing district-level support for English Learners; using resource teachers for individualized programs; and using immersion techniques (such as Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) to teach math to English Learners (3)
- Setting school and district policies to incorporate formal and informal strategies to promote family and community engagement (4)
- Ensuring that teacher candidates understand second language and literacy acquisition and how they inform effective instruction (5)
- Improving access to publicly funded social services, including targeted outreach to non-English speakers for state child care subsidies, conducting public education on language access rights for medical patients and their families, and enforcing existing language access laws in health care settings (6, 7)
Sources for this narrative:
1. As cited on kidsdata.org, English Learners in public schools. (2016). California Department of Education, DataQuest. Retrieved from: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest
2. California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System. (n.d.). Cohort outcome data by program. California Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/cohortrates/CRByProgram.aspx?cds=00000000000000&TheYear=2014-15&Agg=T&Topic=Graduates&RC=State&SubGroup=Ethnic/Racial
3. Williams, T., et al. (2007). Similar English learner students, different results: Why do some schools do better? EdSource. Retrieved from: http://www.edsource.org/wp-content/publications/SimELreportcomplete.pdf
4. Lazarín, M., & Ortiz-Licon, F. (2010). Next generation charter schools: Meeting the needs of Latinos and English language learners. Center for American Progress & National Council of La Raza. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/report/2010/09/01/8329/next-generation-charter-schools
5. Santos, M., et al. (2011). Teacher development to support English language learners in the context of Common Core State Standards. Understanding Language Initiative. Retrieved from: http://ell.stanford.edu/publication/teacher-development-appropriate-support-ells
6. Firgens, E., & Matthews, H. (2012). State child care policies for limited English proficient families. Center for Law and Social Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.clasp.org/issues/child-care-and-early-education/in-focus/new-clasp-paper-looks-at-state-child-care-policies-for-limited-english-proficient-families
7. Chen, A. H., et al. (2007). The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(Suppl. 2), 362-367. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11606-007-0366-2
- Websites with Related Information
- American Institutes for Research: English Language Learners
- California Dept. of Education, Special Programs: English Learners
- Education Commission of the States
- National Council of La Raza
- Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project: Language
- Public Policy Institute of California: K-12 Education
- Spanish-Language Health Resources Knowledge Path, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health
- Key Reports
- Asian Pacific Islander (API) Population Report: In Our Own Words, 2013, California Dept. of Public Health, Office Of Health Equity
- English Proficiency of Immigrants, 2011, Public Policy Institute of California, Hill, L.
- Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States, 2016, Migration Policy Institute, Zong, J., & Batalova, J.
- Hispanic Nativity Shift: U.S. Births Drive Population Growth as Immigration Stalls, 2014, Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project, Krogstad, J. M., & Lopez, M. H.
- Immigrant Children, 2011, The Future of Children, 21(1)
- Immigrants in California, 2013, Public Policy Institute of California, Johnson, H., & Mejia, M. C.
- Improving the Opportunities and Outcomes of California's Students Learning English: Findings from School District–University Collaborative Partnerships, 2015, Policy Analysis for California Education, Umansky, I. M., et al.
- Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners: A Survey of California Teachers’ Challenges, Experiences, and Professional Development Needs, 2005, Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, Gándara, P., et al.
- National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report—Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress, 2012, U.S. Dept. of Education
- Preparing All Teachers to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners, 2012, Center for American Progress, Samson, J. F., & Collins, B. A.
- Providing Care for Immigrant, Migrant, and Border Children, 2013, Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Community Pediatrics
- Teacher Development to Support English Language Learners in the Context of Common Core State Standards, 2012, Understanding Language Initiative, Santos, M., et al.
- The Rise of Asian Americans, 2013, Pew Research Center's Social and Demographic Trends Project
- County/Regional Reports
- Community Health Assessment 2015, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- Fresno Community Scorecard
- L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service Planning Area, 2009, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, Ichinose, D. K., et al.
- Language Access Needs in Alameda County: New and Emerging Immigrant and Refugee Communities, 2008, The California Endowment
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2016 Data Book, Planned Parenthood & Kids in Common
- The Wellbeing Project, City of Santa Monica
- More Data Sources For English Learners
- Children of Immigrants Data Tool, Urban Institute
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- DataQuest, California Dept. of Education
- ED Data Express: Data About Elementary and Secondary Schools in the U.S., U.S. Dept. of Education
- Local Control Funding Formula Reports, California Dept. of Education
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