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- Definition: Number of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners. English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular instructional programs.Percentage of public school students who are English Learners (with Spanish as a primary language), English Learners (Other Language), or not English Learners. English Learners are students with a primary language other than English and who lack the defined English skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in regular instructional programs.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Education, English Learners by Grade and Language and California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS), DataQuest (Apr. 2014).
- Footnote: Years presented are the final year of a school year (e.g., 2012-2013 is shown as 2013). Data for the state, counties, and some school districts are not available in 2011 because many districts did not report English Learner data by language that year. However, 2011 data are available for the related indicator, English Learners in Public Schools. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because fewer than 60 students were enrolled in school. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of English Learners on Kidsdata.org
Kidsdata.org offers the number and percentage of English Learners among public school students, the number and percentage of English Learners by status (i.e., English Learners-Spanish speaking, English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish, or not an English Learner), and the top 10 languages spoken most frequently by English Learners. English Learners are students who have a primary language other than English and who lack the clearly defined English skills of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing necessary to succeed in a school's regular instructional programs.
- English Learners
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living in Linguistically Isolated Households (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More)
- Children Living with One or More Foreign-Born Parent (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More)
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Foreign-Born Population (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Age Group
- Reading Proficiency
- Why This Topic Is Important
Trends in English proficiency and primary languages spoken among children and families can be useful in projecting potential needs and planning appropriate services in health care, education, child care, and other settings. For example, quality health care requires effective communication between families and providers. Research shows that children in families with a primary language other than English experience disparities in health status, quality of health care services, and access to care, compared to children with English as a primary household language (1). Academically, children with limited English proficiency tend to have lower test scores than their native English-speaking peers. English Learners face the challenge of mastering content presented in the school curriculum at the same time they learn a new language (2, 3, 4). These circumstances create exceptional challenges for later educational attainment and socioeconomic success.
California’s public school system is charged with serving a diverse student body. In 2012-13, more than 2.6 million California students (43%) spoke a language other than English at home (3); this far exceeds the national estimate of 21% in 2012 (5). More than sixty different primary languages are reported among California students classified as English Learners (6). To ensure that children with limited English proficiency reach their maximum academic and health potential, it is critical for California’s education, health, social service, and community systems to be adequately prepared to meet the needs of the state’s increasingly diverse child and family population.
For more information on English Learners please see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Flores, G., & Tomany-Korman, S. C. (2008). The language spoken at home and disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in U.S. children. Pediatrics, 121(6):e1703-14. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/121/6/e1703.full
2. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2013). America’s children in brief: Key national indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://childstats.gov/americaschildren/
3. California Department of Education. (2014). Facts about English learners in California. CalEd Facts. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/cb/cefelfacts.asp?print=yes
4. Fry, R. (2007). How far behind in math and reading are English language learners? Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2007/06/06/ii-introduction-7/
5. U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). American Community Survey. Retrieved from: http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml
6. California Department of Education. (2014). State of California language group data - Statewide for 2013-14. DataQuest. Retrieved from: http://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
- How Children Are Faring
In 2013, 22% of all California public school students were classified as English Learners, which equates to almost 1.4 million students with limited English proficiency. The percentage of English Learners remained around 25% between 1998-2008, but has declined slightly since then. At the county level, the percentage of English Learners in public schools ranged widely, from 2% to 42% in 2013.
In 2013 and previous years, Spanish was by far the most common first language of students classified as English Learners, statewide and in all counties with available data. Nearly one in five (18%) California public school students were Spanish-speaking English Learners in 2013; 3% were English Learners with a primary language other than Spanish.
- Policy Implications
More than 1 in every 5 of California’s public school students— almost 1.4 million—have limited English proficiency (1). These children face a variety of educational challenges that policymakers and educators are working to address through targeted instruction, setting high expectations for academic achievement for all students, and improving dropout prevention policies. Currently, only about 62% of English Learners in the state’s public schools graduate from high school (2). Students who are learning English also often have parents with limited or no ability to speak English, which may result in barriers to accessing health care or other services that support academic achievement.
According to research and subject experts, policy options for addressing the challenges faced by children who are English Learners include:
For more policy ideas and information on this topic see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section or visit the Urban Institute, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, or the National Immigration Law Center. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Immigrants, and Reading and Math Proficiency.
- Adopting practices with demonstrated effectiveness at the district and school level, such as: strategic use of academic assessment data; implementing a coherent, standards-based curriculum and program; using measurable and monitored achievement objectives; ensuring availability of teaching resources; securing district-level support for English Learners; using resource teachers for individualized programs; and using immersion techniques (such as Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) to teach math to English Learners (3)
- Setting school and district policies to incorporate formal and informal strategies to promote family and community engagement (4)
- Ensuring that teacher candidates understand second language and literacy acquisition and how they inform effective instruction (5)
- Improving access to publicly funded social services, including targeted outreach to non-English speakers for state child care subsidies; conducting public education on language access rights for medical patients and their families; and enforcing existing language access laws in health care settings (6, 7)
Sources for this narrative:
1. As cited on Kidsdata.org, California Department of Education. (2014). English Learners. Retrieved from: http://www.kidsdata.org/topic/51/english-language-learners/table
2. Ed-Data: Fiscal, Demographic, and Performance Data on California’s K-12 Schools. (2014). Cohort graduation rates: 2011-12. Retrieved from: http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/App_Resx/EdDataClassic/fsTwoPanel.aspx?#!bottom=/_layouts/EdDataClassic/Accountability/performancereports.asp?tab=3&level=04&ReportNumber=1&fyr=1112#cohortgraduationrate
3. EdSource. (2007). Similar English learner students, different results: Why do some schools do better? Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500473.pdf
4. Lazarín, M., & Ortiz-Licon, F. (2010). Next generation charter schools: Meeting the needs of Latinos and English language learners. Center for American Progress and National Council of La Raza. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/09/pdf/charter_schools.pdf
5. Santos, M., et al. (2011). Teacher development to support English language learners in the context of Common Core State Standards. Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/10-Santos LDH Teacher Development FINAL.pdf
6. Center for Law and Social Policy. (2012). State child care policies for limited English proficient families. Retrieved from: http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/CCDBG-LEP-Policies.pdf
7. Critical Measures. (2010). Language access and the law in health care. Retrieved from: www.dli.mn.gov/WC/PDF/interp_2_2.pdf
- Websites with Related Information
- English Learners, California Department of Education
- National Council of La Raza
- Pew Hispanic Center: Language
- Public Policy Institute of California: K-12 Education
- Spanish-Language Health Resources Knowledge Path, Maternal and Child Health Library at Georgetown University
- Key Reports
- English Proficiency of Immigrants, 3/2011, Public Policy Institute of California, Hill
- Ethnic Health Assessment for Latinos in California, 8/2010, California Program on Access to Care at UC Berkeley School of Public Health & California Endowment, Hernandez-Santana, A., & Rodriguez, M. A.
- Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress, 2012, U.S. Department of Education, Cook et al.
- Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States, 2014, Migration Policy Institute, Nwosu, C., Batalova, J., & Auclair, G.
- Hispanic Nativity Shift: U.S. Births Drive Population Growth as Immigration Stalls, 2014, Pew Research: Hispanic Trends Project, Krogstad, J., & Lopez, M. H.
- Immigrant Children, 4/2011, The Future of Children, Haskins, R., & Tienda, M.
- Immigrants in California, 2013, Public Policy Institute of California, Johnson, H., & Mejia, M. C.
- Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners: A Survey of California Teachers’ Challenges, Experiences, and Professional Development Needs, 2005, The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, Gandara, Maxwell-Jolly & Driscoll
- Preparing All Teachers to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners, 2012, Center for American Progress, Samson & Collins
- Teacher Development to Support English Language Learners in the Context of Common Core State Standards, 2012, Stanford University, Santos et al.
- The Language Spoken at Home and Disparities in Medical and Dental Health, Access to Care, and Use of Services in U.S. Children, 6/2/2008, Pediatrics
- The Rise of Asian Americans, 2013, Pew Research: Social & Demographic Trends
- County/Regional Reports
- Fresno Community Scorecard, Fresno Business Council and ValleyPBS
- L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service Planning Area, Asian Pacific American Legal Center, et al.
- Language Access Needs in Alameda County: New and Emerging Immigrant and Refugee Communities, 2008, The California Endowment
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2014 Data Book, Planned Parenthood and Kids in Common
- More Data Sources For English Learners
- Children of Immigrants Data Tool, Urban Institute
- Childstats.gov, Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- DataQuest, California Department of Education
- Ed Data Express: Data About Elementary and Secondary Schools in the U.S.
- The Youngest Americans: A Statistical Portrait of Infants and Toddlers in the United States, 2013, Child Trends, Murphey, D., et al.