Download & Other Tools
- Definition: Rate of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections per 100,000 youth ages 10-19, by age group.
- Data Source: California Dept. of Public Health, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Data; California Dept. of Finance, 2000-2010, Estimates of Race/Hispanic Population with Age & Gender Detail; California Dept. of Finance, Population Projections by Race/Ethnicity, Detailed Age, & Gender, 2010-2060; CDC, Sexually Transmitted Infections; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Intercensal Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex & Age for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2010; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex & Five-Year Age Groups for the United States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (Dec. 2013).
- Footnote: LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because the population at risk minus the number of (non-zero) cases of sexually transmitted infections was less than 100.
- Measures of Teen Sexual Health on Kidsdata.org
On kidsdata.org, indicators of teen sexual health include rates of sexually transmitted infections (i.e., chlamydia and gonorrhea), by age group and by gender among young people ages 10-19; and the percentage of teens ages 14-17 who report that they have not had sex.
- Teen Sexual Health
- Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
- Alcohol Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (How Much Students Report Drinking), by Grade Level
- Binge Drinking in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Drinking and Driving or Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Inhalant Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Marijuana or Other Drug Use (How High Students Report Getting), by Grade Level
- Recreational Use of Prescription Drugs (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Alcohol or Other Drug Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol or Other Drug Use (on School Property in the Past Month), by Grade Level
- Dating and Domestic Violence
- Health Care
- Delayed or No Medical Care
- Health Insurance Coverage (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Type of Insurance and Age
- Health Insurance Coverage (Regions of 20,000 Residents or More), by Type of Insurance and Age
- Health Insurance Coverage (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Type of Insurance and Age
- Length of Time Since Last Routine Health Check-Up
- Medi-Cal Enrollment
- Medical Home Access (California & U.S. Only)
- School Health Centers
- Uninsured at Any Point in Last Year
- Visited the Emergency Room in Last Year, by Type of Insurance
- Teen Births
- Why This Topic Is Important
There is much pressure, biological and social, for young people to be sexually active, yet sexual activity can have serious negative consequences, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Even though youth ages 15-24 represent only 25% of the sexually active population in the U.S., they account for almost half of the 19 million new STI cases each year and are at increased risk for HIV infections (1). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most frequently reported bacterial STIs in the U.S., with the highest rates among girls ages 15-19 (2). If untreated, chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and, in the long term, to infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes (1, 2).
Many teens lack the information and cognitive skills needed to make informed decisions about sexual activity and how to prevent STIs (1). Once an STI is contracted, detection and treatment can be difficult because the majority of chlamydia and gonorrhea cases in women are asymptomatic (2). For this reason, education and routine screening are crucial. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that STI screening occurs for less than half of those who should be screened (3).
STIs also have serious economic consequences. A 2004 study estimated the lifetime medical costs of STIs among American youth ages 15-24 to be $6.5 billion (4). In 2010, the CDC estimated that, overall, STIs cost the U.S. health care system about $17 billion annually (3).
For more information on teen sexual health, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
- Guttmacher Institute. (2011). Facts on American teens’ sexual and reproductive health. Retrieved from: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-ATSRH.html
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2010. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/default.htm
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). STD trends in the United States: 2010 national data for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/trends.htm
- Chesson, et al. (2004). The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases among American youth, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36(1), 11-19. Retrieved from: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3601104.html
- How Children Are Faring
About 82% of California teens ages 14-17 reported in 2011-12 that they had not had sex, similar to previous years. These data come from the California Health Interview Survey, and should be considered estimates.
Some teens who engage in sexual activity contract infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. While those infections sometimes go unreported, many of them are documented. In California, chlamydia rates have increased more than 20% over the past decade, from 635.4 per 100,000 youth ages 10-19 in 2000 to 772.6 in 2012. The state’s rate of gonorrhea infection among teens, which is lower than the chlamydia rate, fluctuated over the last decade; it was 95.8 per 100,000 in 2012. Statewide and in most counties, data from 2012 and previous years show that more females are diagnosed with gonorrhea and chlamydia than males. Similarly, teens ages 15-19 have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections than youth ages 10-14.
- Policy Implications
Teens need accurate information and access to health care to make safe, informed choices about sexual activity, and to receive appropriate care. While sex education is not required (beyond HIV/AIDS prevention, which has been required since 1992), California law prevents withholding information about contraception if sex education is offered in schools, and mandates that the facts are medically accurate and free of gender, racial, and ethnic bias (1). Families also play an important role in teen sexual health; teens who grow up in stable families with good parent-child relationships (including communication about sex) are more likely to delay sexual intercourse and to use contraception (2).
California youth have the right to talk to their doctor confidentially about sexual health (with limitations regarding sexual assault and statutory rape), but some teens, doctors, and parents/guardians may not fully understand those rights (3). In addition, insurance coding and reimbursement is a challenge to confidentiality as it can reveal the nature of the doctor visit to parents or guardians.
According to research and subject experts, policy options to improve teen sexual health include:
For more policy ideas and research on this topic, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section, or visit The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, or The Guttmacher Institute. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Teen Births, Dating and Domestic Violence, and Health Care.
- Informing health care providers and youth about state confidentiality laws concerning sexual health and contraception (3)
- Requiring comprehensive health education in schools, including specific skills-based information about reproductive health, including STD-prevention, and contraception (4)
- Expanding insurance reimbursement to cover comprehensive psychosocial assessments (often known as the HEEADSSS exam) as a separate service (5)
- Adapting public health and reimbursement policies to encourage broader screening of youth for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases (6)
- Exploring technologically innovative methods (such as text messages and online interactives) of communicating sexual health education as they offer confidentiality and are consistent with adolescents’ new-media communications style (7)
- Supporting school-based health centers to ensure accessible preventive and ongoing services for teens (8)
Sources for this narrative:
1. California Department of Education. (2013). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/se/faq.asp
2. Markham, C., et al. (2010). Connectedness as a predictor of sexual and reproductive health outcomes for youth. Journal of Adolescent Health 46(3), S23-S41. Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51442181_Connectedness_as_a_predictor_of_sexual_and_reproductive_health_outcomes_for_youth/file/32bfe5118294039b06.pdf
3. Duplessis, V., et al. (2010). Understanding confidentiality and minor consent in California: A module of the adolescent provider toolkit. Adolescent Health Working Group, California Adolescent Health Collaborative. Retrieved from: http://www.californiateenhealth.org/download/toolkit-rri-Web.pdf
4. United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents. (2011). Sex education: Access and impact on sexual behavior of young people. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/egm-adolescents/p07_kirby.pdf
5. Marcell, A., et al. (2011). Male adolescent and sexual reproductive health care. Pediatrics, (128)6, e1658-e1676. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/128/6/e1658.full
6. Adams, S. et al. (2009). Adolescent preventive services: Rates and disparities in preventive health topics covered during routine medical care in a California sample. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(6), 536-545. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730825/
7. Levine, D. (2011). Using technology, new media, and mobile for sexual and reproductive health. Sexuality Research and Public Policy, 8(1), 18-26. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13178-011-0040-7
8. Ethier, K., et al. (2011). School-based health center access, reproductive health care, and contraceptive use among sexually experienced high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health 48(6), 562-565. Retrieved from: http://www.region8ipp.com/Docs/Ethier.pdf
- Websites with Related Information
- Center for Research on Adolescent Health and Development, Public Health Institute
- Child Trends: Teen Pregnancy/Reproductive Health
- Guttmacher Institute: Adolescents
- Journal of Adolescent Health
- Physicians for Reproductive Health
- Sexual Risk Behavior, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy
- Key Reports
- Abstinence-Only and Comprehensive Sex Education and the Initiation of Sexual Activity and Teen Pregnancy, 2007, Journal of Adolescent Health, Kohler, Manhart & Lafferty
- Adolescents’ Views Regarding Use of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education, 2012, American Journal of Health Education, Selkie, E., et al
- Discussions about Contraception or STDs Prior to Sex, 4/2008, Child Trends, Holcombe, Ryan & Manlove
- Finding Teens in TheirSpace: Using Social Networking Sites to Connect Youth to Sexual Health Services, 2011, Sexuality Research and Social Policy, Ralph, L., et al.
- Improvement in Adolescent Screening and Counseling Rates for Risk Behaviors and Developmental Tasks, 2012, Pediatrics, Duncan, P., et al.
- Primary Care Providers’ Reports of Time Alone and the Provision of Sexual Health Services to Urban Adolescent Patients: Results of a Prospective Card Study, Journal of Adolescent Health, O’Sullivan, L., et al
- School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors Among Youth, 2009, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- School-Based Health Center Access, Reproductive Health Care, and Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Experienced High School Students, 2011, Journal of Adolescent Health, Ethier, K. et al
- Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors Among Teen and Young Adult Men, 10/2008, Child Trends, Manlove et al.
- Sexual Health Disparities Among African American Youth and the Need for Early Prevention Approaches: Parenting and Youth Development Programs as Strategies for Pre-Risk Prevention, 11/2009, Journal of Equity in Health, Miller et al.
- Sociocultural Determinants of Teenage Childbearing Among Latinas in California, 2010, Maternal and Child Health Journal, Dehlendorf et al.
- State Disparities in Teenage Birth Rates in the United States, 10/2010, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mathews et al.
- Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, 2011, National Center for Health Statistics, Martinez et al.
- Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Teens and Young Adults, 12/2011, Child Trends, Welti et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- Children's Report Card: Sacramento County Children's Coalition, 2013
- Fresno Community Scorecard, Fresno Business Council and ValleyPBS
- Kern County Report Card, 2014, Kern County Network for Children
- Respect Yourself, Protect Yourself: Increasing Condom Use Among Sexually Active Teens, 2011, CDC’s Division of Adolescent and School Health, San Diego, CA
- San Diego County Report Card on Children & Families, 2013, The Children's Initiative and Johnson Group Consulting, Inc.
- Santa Barbara County Children's Scorecard, 2011, Santa Barbara County KIDS Network
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2014 Data Book, 2014, Planned Parenthood and Kids in Common
- The Developmental Assets Survey: Young People Talk About Growing Up in Silicon Valley, 2011, Project Cornerstone
- Tulare County Children’s Report Card 2010, 2011, Children's Services Network
- More Data Sources For Teen Sexual Health
- America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Childstats.gov
- America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014, Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Childstats.gov
- Robert Wood Johnson County Health Rankings & Roadmaps