- High School Graduation
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Bullying/Harassment for Bias-Related Reason (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Disability as Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Gender as Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Race or National Origin as Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Religion as Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Sexual Orientation as Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Other Non-Specified Reason for Bullying/Harassment (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Cyberbullying (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Student Bullying/Harassment Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- College Eligibility
- Births to Unmarried Women (California & U.S. Only)
- Child Population, by County
- Child Population, by City, School District and County (65,000 Residents or More)
- Children in Rural and Urban Areas (California & U.S. Only)
- Public School Enrollment
- Total Population
- Community Connectedness
- Caring Adults in the Community (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Adults in the Community (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation in the Community (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Total Community Assets (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Math Proficiency
- Disconnected Youth
- Pupil Support Service Personnel
- Reading Proficiency
- School Connectedness
- Caring Adults at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Teachers and Others (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Total School Assets (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- School Connectedness (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Adults at School Believe in Student Success (Staff Reported)
- Caring Adults at School (Staff Reported)
- School Gives Students Opportunities to Make a Difference (Staff Reported)
- School Motivates Students to Learn (Staff Reported)
- Students Who Are Motivated to Learn (Staff Reported)
- Youth Development or Resilience Is Fostered at School (Staff Reported)
- School Safety
- Perceptions of School Safety (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Fear of Being Beaten Up at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Physical Fighting at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Carrying a Gun at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Carrying a Knife or Other Weapon at School (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Perceptions of School Safety for Students (Staff Reported)
- Perceptions of School Safety for Staff (Staff Reported)
- Student Physical Fighting Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Student Weapons Possession Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions
- Teen Births
- Why This Topic Is Important
Dropping out of high school is associated with a range of adverse life outcomes (1). Young people who do not complete high school are more likely to struggle with employment, live in poverty, be dependent on welfare benefits, have poor physical and mental health, and engage in criminal activity than those with higher education levels (1). Though many individuals who do not receive a high school diploma go on to earn an equivalency degree, such as a GED, this credential also is associated with lower earning potential than a traditional diploma (2). The economic consequences of dropping out of high school do not stop with the individual; society also pays a high price (1). For example, dropouts from the nation’s class of 2011 will cost the U.S. economy an estimated $154 billion over the course of their lifetimes (1). Dropout rates also are related to higher rates of imprisonment. A report from the California Attorney General estimates that students who do not complete high school are eight times more likely to be incarcerated than those who graduate (3).For more information on high school dropouts see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Child Trends Databank. (2015). High school dropout rates. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=high-school-dropout-rates
2. Ewert, S. (2012). What it’s worth: Field of training and economic status in 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p70-129.pdf
3. California Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General. (n.d.). In school and on track 2016: Attorney General's 2016 report on California's elementary school truancy and absenteeism crisis. Retrieved from: http://oag.ca.gov/truancy/2016
- How Children Are Faring
In California, 82% of students who started high school in 2011 graduated with their class in 2015, up from 75% of the 2006-2010 cohort. Among counties with data in 2015, seven had graduation rates of at least 90%. Across counties and years, female students have higher graduation rates than their male counterparts.
According to 2015 data, more than 52,000 California students who started high school in 2011 exited before graduating—about 1 in every 9 students. Dropout rates vary at the county and school district levels, as well as by racial/ethnic group. Generally, African American/black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic/Latino, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander students have higher dropout rates than Asian American, white, and Filipino students.
- Policy Implications
Students drop out of high school for a variety of reasons. Risk factors associated with dropping out include absenteeism, behavioral problems, suspension, and course failure (1, 2, 3). Underlying causes for these factors may be related to chronic health or mental health conditions, poverty, and other issues (1, 3). Children at risk of poor educational outcomes can be identified early and successfully supported to stay engaged in school (1, 3). In addition to identifying and addressing risk factors for dropping out, policymakers can promote evidence-based strategies to foster student, family, school, and community strengths associated with higher graduation rates (1, 2).
Although the gap in dropout rates among racial/ethnic groups has been closing in recent years, California dropout rates still are highest for African American/black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic/Latino, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander students (1, 4). Other populations at higher risk of dropping out include English Learners, youth in foster care, and special education students (1, 5).
Policies that could promote high school graduation include:
For more policy ideas and research on this topic, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section, or visit GradNation, the Institute of Education Sciences What Works Clearinghouse, or the California Dropout Research Project. Also see Policy Implications under the following topics on kidsdata.org: Disconnected Youth, College Eligibility, and Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions.
- Continuing to encourage K-12 schools to engage students, families, and community partners in developing comprehensive, coordinated, evidence-based systems to support student needs and promote a positive school climate; such systems should involve school-based health services to identify and address student physical and mental health issues, strategies to address behavior problems (e.g., bullying), and efforts to promote social and emotional skills (1, 2, 6, 7)
- Ensuring effective implementation of California’s Local Control Funding Formula and a continued focus on providing adequate resources to support low-income students, students of color, youth in foster care, students with disabilities, and English Learners to achieve graduation rates equal to other students (1, 5)
- Improving policies and programs focused on early identification of students who are struggling, including young students in feeder schools, and providing tailored support for those students, especially at critical periods such as in middle school and the transition to 9th grade; examples of targeted support include improving parent-school communication and engagement, and connecting students to mentoring, tutoring, or other community-based programs (1, 3, 7)
- Continuing to support and improve comprehensive data systems that accurately document dropout risk factors and inform strategies for student success, including early warning indicators, data sharing, and longitudinal tracking (1, 3)
- Setting ambitious, annual measurable objectives for increasing the number of students who graduate (1)
- Avoiding “zero tolerance” school discipline approaches, and promoting discipline policies that are non-punitive, transparent, fair, consistent, and aim to keep students in school when possible (1, 8)
Sources for this narrative:
1. DePaoli, J. L., et al. (2015). Building a grad nation: Progress and challenge in ending the high school dropout epidemic. Civic Enterprises & Everyone Graduates Center at the School of Education at Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved from: http://gradnation.org/report/2015-building-grad-nation-report
2. Center for Promise. (2015). The building blocks of a GradNation: Assets for keeping young people in school. America’s Promise Alliance. Retrieved from: http://live.americaspromise.org/resource/building-blocks-gradnation
3. United Way Worldwide. (2013). Solving the high school graduation crisis: Identifying and using school feeder patterns in your community. Retrieved from: http://gradnation.org/resource/solving-high-school-graduation-crisis
4. As cited on kidsdata.org, Students not completing high school, by race/ethnicity. (2016). California Department of Education, California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS).
5. Barrat, V., & Berliner, B. (2013). The invisible achievement gap: Education outcomes of students in foster care in California’s public schools. WestEd. Retrieved from: http://www.wested.org/resources/the-invisible-achievement-gap-education-outcomes-of-students-in-foster-care-in-californias-public-schools-part-1
6. Basch, C. E., et al. (2015). Health barriers to learning and the education opportunity gap. Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from: http://www.ecs.org/the-progress-of-education-reform-health-barriers-to-learning-and-the-education-opportunity-gap
7. Bayerl, K., et al. (2014). In and beyond schools: Putting more youth on the path to success with integrated support. Jobs for the Future & Advancement Project California. Retrieved from: http://www.jff.org/publications/and-beyond-schools-putting-more-youth-path-success-integrated-support
8. Morgan, E., et al. (2014). The school discipline consensus report: Strategies from the field to keep students engaged in school and out of the juvenile justice system. Council of State Governments Justice Center. Retrieved from: http://csgjusticecenter.org/youth/school-discipline-consensus-report
- Websites with Related Information
- Alliance for Excellent Education
- American Youth Policy Forum
- America's Promise Alliance
- California Dropout Research Project, UC Santa Barbara, Gervitz Graduate School of Education
- Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP): Pathways to Reconnection
- Education Commission of the States
- Everyone Graduates Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Education
- Institute of Education Sciences: What Works Clearinghouse
- Jobs for the Future
- National Conference of State Legislatures: Dropout Prevention and Recovery
- National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, Clemson University College of Education
- Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis
- Key Reports and Research
- 2016 California Children's Report Card, Children Now
- Back to School: Exploring Promising Practices for Re-Engaging Young People in Secondary Education, 2014, America’s Promise Alliance, Center for Promise
- Beyond the GED: Promising Models for Moving High School Dropouts to College, 2014, MDRC, Zachry Rutschow, E., & Crary-Ross, S.
- Black Lives Matter: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males, 2015, Schott Foundation for Public Education
- Building a Grad Nation Data Brief: Overview of 2013-14 High School Graduation Rates, 2016, Civic Enterprises & Everyone Graduates Center at the School of Education at Johns Hopkins University
- Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Raising High School Graduation Rates, 2016, Civic Enterprises & Everyone Graduates Center at the School of Education at Johns Hopkins University, DePaoli, J. L., et al.
- California's Future: K-12 Education, 2017, Public Policy Institute of California, Hill, L., et al.
- Critical Choices in Post-Recession California: Investing in the Educational and Career Success of Immigrant Youth, 2014, Migration Policy Institute, Hooker, S., et al.
- Don't Call Them Dropouts: Understanding the Experiences of Young People Who Leave High School Before Graduation, 2014, America’s Promise Alliance, Center for Promise
- Health and Academic Achievement, 2014, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- In and Beyond Schools: Putting More Youth on the Path to Success with Integrated Support, 2014, Jobs for the Future & Advancement Project California, Bayerl, K., et al.
- In School + On Track 2016: Attorney General's 2016 Report on California's Elementary School Truancy & Absenteeism Crisis, California Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General
- National Dropout Prevention Center/Network: Effective Strategies, Clemson University College of Education
- The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015: What It Means for Equity and Accountability in California, 2015, Education Trust–West
- The Local Control Funding Formula: An Essential EdSource Guide, 2016, EdSource
- The Progress of Education Reform: Health Barriers to Learning and the Education Opportunity Gap, 2015, Education Commission of the States, Basch, C. E., et al.
- The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model, 2015, Journal of School Health (Special Issue), Hunt, H. (Ed.)
- Time for Equity: Expanding Access to Learning, 2015, Voices in Urban Education, 40, Renée, M. (Ed.)
- Transitions from High School to College, 2013, The Future of Children, Venezia, A., & Jaeger, L.
- County/Regional Reports
- 2014 Solano Children's Report Card, Children's Network of Solano County
- 2014 Youth Wellbeing Report Card, Santa Monica Cradle to Career
- 2016-17 California County Scorecard of Children's Well-Being, Children Now
- 2017 Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- Collaborating for Equity: A Scan of the Los Angeles Educational Ecosystem, 2015, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Potochnik, T., & Romans, A. N.
- College Readiness as a Graduation Requirement: An Assessment of San Diego’s Challenges, 2013, Public Policy Institute of California, Betts, J. R., et al.
- Community Health Assessment 2015, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- County of San Mateo Adolescent Report 2014-15, San Mateo County Health System
- Fresno Community Scorecard
- Orange County Community Indicators Report, 2017, Orange County Community Indicators Project
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2017 Data Book, Planned Parenthood & Kids in Common
- The 22nd Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County, 2016, Orange County Children's Partnership
- More Data Sources For High School Graduation
- Child Trends Databank: High School Dropout Rates
- DataQuest, California Dept. of Education
- Diversitydatakids.org, Brandeis University, Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy
- Education Data Partnership (Ed-Data), California Department of Education, EdSource, and Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team/California School Information Services
- KIDS COUNT Data Center, Annie E. Casey Foundation
- Local Control Funding Formula Reports, California Dept. of Education
- National Center for Education Statistics: Data Tools, U.S. Dept. of Education, Institute of Education Sciences
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