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- Definition: Number of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among youth ages 10-19, by race/ethnicity (e.g., in 2015 there were 16,912 cases of chlamydia among Hispanic/Latino youth in California).Number of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections per 100,000 youth ages 10-19, by race/ethnicity (e.g., in 2015, there were 648.6 cases of chlamydia per 100,000 Hispanic/Latino youth in California).
- Data Source: California Dept. of Public Health, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Data; California Dept. of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 2000-2010, 2010-2060 (Sept. 2016).
- Footnote: LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because the population minus the number of cases of sexually transmitted infections in that group was less than 100. N/A means that data are not available.
- Measures of Teen Sexual Health on Kidsdata.org
On kidsdata.org, indicators of teen sexual health include rates and counts of sexually transmitted infections (i.e., chlamydia and gonorrhea) among young people ages 10-19, by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity; and the percentage of teens ages 14-17 who report that they have not had sex.
- Teen Sexual Health
- Intimate Partner Violence
- Health Care
- Delayed or No Medical Care
- Length of Time Since Last Routine Health Check-Up
- Visited the Emergency Room in Last Year, by Type of Insurance
- Uninsured at Any Point in Last Year
- Health Insurance Coverage (Regions of 65,000 Residents or More), by Type of Insurance and Age
- Health Insurance Coverage (Regions of 10,000 Residents or More), by Type of Insurance and Age
- Medi-Cal Point-in-Time Enrollment
- Receipt of Care Within a Medical Home (Regions of 70,000 Residents or More)
- Adequate Health Services Provided at School (Staff Reported)
- School Health Centers
- Youth Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use
- Alcohol/Drug Use in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Alcohol/Drug Use on School Property in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use in Lifetime (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use on School Property in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Usual Level of Alcohol Intoxication (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Binge Drinking in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Drinking and Driving or Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Lifetime (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use on School Property in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Inhalant Use in Lifetime (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Lifetime (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use on School Property in Past Month (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Recreational Use of Prescription Drugs in Lifetime (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Usual Level of Marijuana or Other Drug Intoxication (Student Reported), by Grade Level
- Student Alcohol and Drug Use Is a Problem at School (Staff Reported)
- Substance Abuse Prevention Is an Important Goal at School (Staff Reported)
- Substance Use Prevention Education Is Provided at School (Staff Reported)
- School Provides Effective Support and Referral Services for Substance Abuse, Violence, or Other Problems (Staff Reported)
- Teen Births
- Why This Topic Is Important
There is much pressure, biological and social, for young people to be sexually active, yet sexual activity can have serious negative consequences, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is estimated that although youth ages 15-24 represent only 25% of the sexually active population in the U.S., they account for half of the 20 million new STI cases each year (1). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most frequently reported bacterial STIs in the U.S., with young people (ages 15-24) and some racial/ethnic minority populations experiencing the highest rates of infection (1, 2).
Once an STI is contracted, detection and treatment can be difficult because the majority of chlamydia and gonorrhea cases in women are asymptomatic (1). For this reason, education and routine screening are crucial (1, 3). If untreated, chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and, in the long term, to infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes (1, 2).
STIs also have serious economic consequences. In 2013, the CDC estimated that, overall, STIs cost the U.S. health care system about $16 billion annually (3).For more information on teen sexual health, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats15
2. Guttmacher Institute. (2016). American teens’ sexual and reproductive health. Retrieved from: https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/american-teens-sexual-and-reproductive-health
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: https://npin.cdc.gov/publication/incidence-prevalence-and-cost-sexually-transmitted-infections-united-states
- How Children Are Faring
According to a 2011-12 survey, about 82% of California teens ages 14-17 reported that they had not had sex; this figure is similar to estimates from previous years.
Some teens who engage in sexual activity contract infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. In California, chlamydia rates increased steadily between 2000 and 2008, but have decreased overall since 2011, from 813 cases per 100,000 youth ages 10-19 to 709 per 100,000 in 2015. The state’s rate of gonorrhea infection among youth, which is lower than the chlamydia rate, has fluctuated between 93 and 139 per 100,000 since 2000; in 2015, there were 121 cases of gonorrhea per 100,000 youth. Statewide and in most counties, data from 2015 and previous years show that female youth are diagnosed with chlamydia and gonorrhea at higher rates than males. Similarly, African American/black and Hispanic/Latino youth have higher rates of infection than their white and Asian/Pacific Islander peers. Although teens ages 15-19 account for the vast majority of chlamydia and gonorrhea cases among youth in California, there were also 862 cases involving children ages 10-14 in 2015.
- Policy Implications
Teens need accurate information and access to health care to make safe, informed choices about sexual activity and to receive appropriate care. California law now requires integrated, comprehensive sexual health and HIV prevention education, and mandates that instruction and materials be appropriate for students of all races, genders, sexual orientations, and ethnic and cultural backgrounds (1). Families also play an important role in teen sexual health; teens who grow up in stable families with good parent-child relationships (including communication about sex) are more likely to delay sexual intercourse and to use contraception (2).
California youth have the right to talk to their doctor confidentially about sexual health (with limitations regarding sexual assault and statutory rape), but some teens, doctors, and parents/guardians may not fully understand those rights (3). In addition, insurance coding and reimbursement is a challenge to confidentiality as it can reveal the nature of the doctor visit to parents or guardians.
Policy options to improve teen sexual health include:
For more policy ideas and research on this topic, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section, or visit The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, or the Guttmacher Institute. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under Teen Births, Intimate Partner Violence, and Health Care.
- Informing health care providers and youth about state confidentiality laws concerning sexual health and contraception (3)
- Expanding insurance reimbursement to cover comprehensive psychosocial assessments (often known as the HEEADSSS exam) as a separate service in order to ensure that sexuality and other important components of adolescents’ histories are discussed (4)
- Adapting public health and reimbursement policies to encourage broader screening of youth for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases (5)
- Exploring technologically innovative methods (such as text messages and online interactives) of communicating sexual health education as they offer confidentiality and are consistent with adolescents’ new-media communications style (6)
- Supporting school-based health centers to ensure accessible preventive and ongoing services for teens (7)
Sources for this narrative:
1. California Department of Education. (n.d.). California Healthy Youth Act: Comprehensive sexual health education & HIV prevention education. Retrieved from: https://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CPSP/Documents/CA Healthy Youth Act 2016_Final Compatibility Mode.pdf
2. Markham, C. M., et al. (2010). Connectedness as a predictor of sexual and reproductive health outcomes for youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(Suppl. 3), S23-S41. Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51442181
3. Duplessis, V., et al. (2010). Understanding confidentiality and minor consent in California (2nd ed.). Adolescent Health Working Group & California Adolescent Health Collaborative. Retrieved from: http://www.phi.org/resources/?resource=understanding-confidentiality-and-minor-consent-in-california-an-adolescent-provider-toolkit
4. Marcell, A. V., et al. (2011). Male adolescent sexual and reproductive health care. Pediatrics, 128(6), e1658-e1676. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/128/6/e1658
5. Adams, S. H., et al. (2009). Adolescent preventive services: Rates and disparities in preventive health topics covered during routine medical care in a California sample. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(6), 536-545. Retrieved from: http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(08)00406-0/
6. Levine, D. (2011). Using technology, new media, and mobile for sexual and reproductive health. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 8(1), 18-26. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13178-011-0040-7
7. Ethier, K. A., et al. (2011). School-based health center access, reproductive health care, and contraceptive use among sexually experienced high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health 48(6), 562-565. Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51130158
- Websites with Related Information
- Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group
- Center for Research on Adolescent Health and Development, Public Health Institute
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Sexual Risk Behaviors
- Child Trends: Teen Pregnancy and Reproductive Health
- Guttmacher Institute: United States Teens
- Journal of Adolescent Health
- Physicians for Reproductive Health
- The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy
- Key Reports and Research
- Adolescents’ Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education, 2011, American Journal of Health Education, Selkie, E. M., et al.
- American Teens' Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2016, Guttmacher Institute
- Finding Teens in TheirSpace: Using Social Networking Sites to Connect Youth to Sexual Health Services, 2011, Sexuality Research and Social Policy, Ralph, L. J., et al.
- Improvement in Adolescent Screening and Counseling Rates for Risk Behaviors and Developmental Tasks, 2012, Pediatrics, Duncan, P., et al.
- Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review, 2013, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Goesling, B., et al.
- School-Based Health Center Access, Reproductive Health Care, and Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Experienced High School Students, 2011, Journal of Adolescent Health, Ethier, K. A., et al.
- Sexual Health Disparities Among African American Youth and the Need for Early Prevention Approaches: Parenting and Youth Development Programs as Strategies for Pre-Risk Prevention, 2009, Journal of Equity in Health, Miller, K. S., et al.
- Sexual Initiation, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy Among Young Adolescents, 2013, Pediatrics, Finer, L. B., & Philbin, J. M.
- Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Sociocultural Determinants of Teenage Childbearing Among Latinas in California, 2010, Maternal and Child Health Journal, Dehlendorf, C., et al.
- Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use Among U.S. Teens and Young Adults, 2011, Child Trends, Welti, K., et al.
- What Works for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions, 2014, Child Trends, Fish, H., et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- 2017 Kern County Report Card, Kern County Network for Children
- California Adolescent Sexual Needs Health Index (CASHNI), 2014, California Dept. of Public Health
- Community Health Assessment 2015, Los Angeles County Dept. of Public Health
- County of San Mateo Adolescent Report 2014-15, San Mateo County Health System
- Fresno Community Scorecard
- San Diego County Report Card on Children and Families, 2015, The Children's Initiative & Live Well San Diego
- San Diego: Increasing Condom Use Among Sexually Active Teens, 2011, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Santa Clara County Children's Agenda: 2017 Data Book, Planned Parenthood & Kids in Common
- More Data Sources For Teen Sexual Health
- California Health Interview Survey, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research
- CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease Morbidity Data, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
- National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) AtlasPlus, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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