Download & Other Tools
- Definition: Number of juvenile felony arrests per 1,000 youth ages 10-17.
- Data Source: California Department of Justice, Criminal Justice Statistics Center, Monthly Arrest and Citation Register (MACR) Data Files; CJSC published tables (Oct. 2014). California Dept. of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1990-1999, 2000-2010, 2010-2060 (May 2013).
- Footnote: LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because there were fewer than 20 total juvenile arrests in the county.
- Measures of Juvenile Arrests on Kidsdata.org
This topic describes felony arrests for youth under age 18. Felony arrests, which are more serious than misdemeanors, tend to involve injury or substantial property loss. Felony crimes include violent offenses (homicide, rape, robbery, assault, and kidnapping); property offenses (burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, forgery, and arson); drug and alcohol offenses (narcotics, marijuana, dangerous drugs, and driving under the influence); sex offenses; and other offenses (such as those involving weapons, hit-and-run, and bookmaking). Indicators on kidsdata.org include:
Note: Juvenile felony arrest data do not provide a full picture of youth criminal activity. These data do not include misdemeanor arrests, and the number of arrests can shift as a result of changes in the number of police on the streets, legislative or judicial action to increase or reduce penalties, or trends in prosecutors’ charging decisions. Many felony charges also are reduced to misdemeanors or are dismissed in the later phases of the court process.
- Juvenile Arrests
- Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
- Alcohol Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Alcohol Use (How Much Students Report Drinking), by Grade Level
- Binge Drinking in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Drinking and Driving or Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Cigarette Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Inhalant Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Marijuana Use (on School Property in Past Month), by Grade Level
- Marijuana or Other Drug Use (How High Students Report Getting), by Grade Level
- Recreational Use of Prescription Drugs (Lifetime), by Grade Level
- Alcohol or Other Drug Use in Past Month, by Grade Level
- Alcohol or Other Drug Use (on School Property in the Past Month), by Grade Level
- Bullying and Harassment at School
- Any Reason For Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Any Bias-Related Reason For Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Disability as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Gender as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Race or National Origin as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Religion as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Sexual Orientation as Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Other Non-Specified Reason for Bullying/Harassment, by Grade Level
- Community Connectedness
- Caring Adults in the Community, by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Adults in the Community, by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation in the Community, by Grade Level
- Total Community Assets, by Grade Level
- Dating and Domestic Violence
- Disconnected Youth
- Emotional/Mental Health
- Gang Involvement
- School Safety
- Perceptions of School Safety, by Grade Level
- Fear of Being Beaten Up at School, by Grade Level
- Physical Fighting at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Gun at School, by Grade Level
- Carrying a Knife or Other Weapon at School, by Grade Level
- School Connectedness
- Caring Adults at School, by Grade Level
- High Expectations from Teachers and Others, by Grade Level
- Meaningful Participation at School, by Grade Level
- Total School Assets, by Grade Level
- School Connectedness, by Grade Level
- Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions
- Why This Topic Is Important
Almost all youth participate in some form of delinquent behavior (e.g., underage drinking), but few actually have contact with the juvenile justice system. Those who do tend to be at increased risk for substance use and dependency, dropping out of school, early pregnancy, and injury (1, 2). Youth who have been detained have higher rates of attempted suicide and psychiatric disorders than youth the general population (3, 4, 5). Youth who are held in detention also have higher recidivism rates and are more likely to engage in adult criminal behavior than youth who are not detained (3). In addition, youth who are arrested or detained may face difficulty gaining the educational credentials they need to succeed as adults and to obtain sustained employment.
Research has identified a number of risk factors for juvenile crime. A history of maltreatment, significant educational challenges, poverty, separation from family members, parental incarceration, exposure to violence in the home and community (2), mental illness, and substance use or dependency (5) each are related to an increased likelihood of involvement with the juvenile justice system.For more information on juvenile arrests, see kidsdata.org’s Research & Links section.
Sources for this narrative:
1. PolicyforResults.Org. (2014). Prevent juvenile delinquency. Retrieved from: http://www.policyforresults.org/youth/prevent-juvenile-delinquency
2. Nellis, A. (2012). The lives of juvenile lifers: Findings from a national survey. Washington DC: The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from: http://sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/publications/jj_The_Lives_of_Juvenile_Lifers.pdf
3. PolicyforResults.Org. (2014). Reduce juvenile detention. Retrieved from: http://www.policyforresults.org/youth/reduce-juvenile-detention
4. Abram, K. M., et al. (2014). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among detained youth. Washington DC: Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from: http://ojjdp.gov/pubs/243891.pdf
5. Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2014). Behavioral health problems, treatment, and outcomes in serious youthful offenders. Washington DC: Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from: http://ojjdp.gov/pubs/242440.pdf
- How Children Are Faring
California’s juvenile felony arrest rate declined by 62% between 1998 and 2013, from 19.6 per 1,000 youth ages 10-17 to 7.5. Most counties also saw declines during this period. County-level juvenile felony arrest rates vary widely, ranging from 4.8 per 1,000 to 23.5 in 2013.
In 2013, 38.3% of juvenile felony arrests in California were for property offenses, 26.9% for violent offenses, 20.9% for other offenses (e.g., weapons, hit-and-run), 11% for drug and alcohol offenses, and 2.8% for sex offenses. Statewide, boys account for the vast majority of juvenile felony arrests.
Among racial/ethnic groups, African American youth are arrested at higher rates than their peers in other groups. In 2013, African American and Latino youth together comprised 75% of all juvenile felony arrests in California. Youth of color have been disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system for many years, statewide and nationally. For more information, see The Future of Children’s journal issue, Juvenile Justice.
Keep in mind that arrests and arrest rates can be influenced by multiple factors, and are an imperfect measure of juvenile criminal activity.
- Policy Implications
The juvenile justice system is responsible for protecting society from crime and delinquency, holding youth offenders accountable, and rehabilitating them. Policymakers within the justice, social services, and education systems can play a role in improving the way society addresses juvenile crime. Of the youth who enter California’s juvenile justice system, an estimated 30% have mental health issues (1) The process for adjudicating youth offenders often does not have the intended effect on crime control, and it does not always take into account the relative public safety risk or circumstances of individual youth (2). Within the first year after release, more than half of youth offenders (55%) are re-arrested, and about a quarter (24%) are re-incarcerated (3).
According to research and subject experts, policy options that could reduce juvenile felonies include:
- Improving systems of care to address the mental health needs of juvenile offenders, from initial screening or assessment at first contact with the juvenile justice system to provision of appropriate treatment to incarcerated youth (2).
- Addressing recidivism by reforming policies that increase the likelihood to re-offend, and providing services that decrease it (4), such as cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral programs, group counseling, mentoring and assistance in graduating high school (5).
- Examining and improving existing policies for processing youth offenders through the juvenile justice system; policies should allow for case-specific assessment of the individual, the severity of the offense, the public safety risk posed by the youth, and the potential effects of system processing (1).
For more policy ideas on juvenile justice, visit the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Also see Policy Implications on kidsdata.org under the topics Truancy, Suspensions & Expulsions, High School Dropouts, School Connectedness, and Gang Involvement.
Sources for this narrative:
1. California’s Legislative Analyst’s Office. (2012). The 2012-2013 budget: Completing juvenile justice realignment. Retrieved from:http://www.lao.ca.gov/analysis/2012/crim_justice/juvenile-justice-021512.aspx
2. Guckenberg, S., & Petrosino, A. (2013). Formal system processing of juveniles: Effects on delinquency. Retrieved from: http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-w0692-pub.pdf
3. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2013). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 national report. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/QA/Detail.aspx?Id=732&context=9
4. Redding, R. E. (2010). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Juvenile Justice Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/220595.pdf
5. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. (n.d.). Promising and proven programs on youth violence prevention. Retrieved from: http://ojp.gov/programs/yvp_programs.htm
- Websites with Related Information
- Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice
- CrimeSolutions.gov, Office of Justice Programs
- Criminal Justice Statistics Center of the Attorney General of California
- Fight Crime: Invest In Kids, California
- Juvenile Justice Information Exchange
- National Center for Youth Law: Juvenile Justice
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
- PolicyforResults.org, Center for the Study of Social Policy
- Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY), Prevention Institute
- Youth Crime and Justice Publications, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
- Key Reports
- An Impact Evaluation of Three Strategies Created to Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact and the Detention Population, 3/2013, Rodriguez, N., & Eell, E.
- Behavioral Health Problems, Treatment, and Outcomes in Serious Youthful Offenders, 6/2014, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P.
- Breaking Schools’ Rules: A Statewide Study on How School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement, 7/2011, Council of State Governments Justice Center and The Public Policy Research Institute, Texas A&M University, Fabelo, T., et al.
- California's Future, 2014, Public Policy Institute of California
- Children’s Exposure to Violence and the Intersection Between Delinquency and Victimization , 10/2013, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Cuevas, C. A., et al.
- Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System, 7/2014, The National Reentry Resource Center
- Juvenile Justice, 9/2008, The Future of Children
- Juvenile Justice in California, 5/2014, Public Policy Institute of California, Tafoya, S., & Hayes, J.
- Predicting Recidivism Among Juvenile Delinquents: Comparison of Risk Factors for Male and Female Offenders, 2013, Journal of Juvenile Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Thompson, K. C., & Morris, R. J.
- Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Detained Youth, 7/2014, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Abram, K. M., et al.
- The Lives of Juvenile Lifers: Findings from a National Survey, 3/2012, The Sentencing Project, Nellis
- The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders, 2014, OJJDP Journal of Juvenile Justice, Baglivio, M. T., et al.
- The School Discipline Consensus Report: Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged in School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System, 2014, The Council of State Governments Justice Center, Morgan, E., et al.
- Violence, Crime, and Abuse Exposure in a National Sample of Children and Youth: An Update, 5/2013, JAMA Pediatrics, Finkelhor, D., et al.
- County/Regional Reports
- 2014 Youth Wellbeing Report Card: Santa Monica, California, Cradle to Career Working Group
- Children's Report Card: Sacramento County Children's Coalition, 2013
- County of San Mateo Adolescent Report 2014-15, San Mateo County Health System
- Fresno Community Scorecard, Fresno Business Council and Valley PBS
- Kern County Report Card, 2014, Kern County Network for Children
- Orange County Community Indicators Report, 2014
- San Diego County 2013 Report Card on Children & Families, 2014, The Children's Initiative
- San Jose Mayor's Gang Prevention Task Force Strategic Work Plan 2011-13, City of San Jose
- Solano County Children's Report Card, 2014, Children's Network
- The Developmental Assets Survey: Young People Talk About Growing Up in Silicon Valley, 2011, Project Cornerstone
- More Data Sources For Juvenile Arrests
- Childstats.gov, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics